More than 6,000 years ago on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the Sumerians brewed and consumed Beer. History says that the Babylonians inherited from the Sumerians the art of cultivating the land and brewing beer. One of the best-known decrees of the time, issued by King Hammurabi, established regulations on the manufacture of this drink, which included the price of the product, the appropriate concentration, and established penalties applicable to those who adulterated it. The elaboration had a religious character and was carried out by priestesses.
According to an Assyrian table dated 2.000 years BC, beer was part of the provisions of Noah's Ark, and Christopher Columbus, upon reaching the Caribbean Islands, discovers that the American Indians were drinking a fermented drink made from corn.
The Greeks identified beer with the Egyptians, since the word "zythum" used by them, meant barley wine. A century before Jesus Christ, Diodor Siculus writes "A drink called zythum is made in Egypt with barley, and because of its pleasant color and taste it yields very little to wine."
In the beginning, the Egyptians obtained beer by fermenting wheat, but later it was replaced by other more suitable cereals, especially barley. The drink was mixed with fruits, preferably dates, sweetened with honey and perfumed with cinnamon.
Egyptian beer makers were exempted from military service, and both soldiers and authorities received beer as part of their pay.
There is also evidence that the Chinese produced a kind of beer called "Kiu" more than 4,000 years ago, which was made from barley, wheat, spelled, millet and rice.
Beer en Mexico City.
In ancient Mexico there were certain beverages that had a certain similarity to beer. One of them was the "tesguino" which was a liquid of a clear and beautiful amber color, denser than garter belt, and that was beaten with a mill before drinking to make a lot of foam rise.
Another of the drinks was the "sendecho" which was similar to the "bier" of the ancient Germans, except that they used barley instead of corn and which the chroniclers of the time assure, "gave the body vigor, removed evils and did not intoxicate ”.
In 1542 Carlos V authorized Alfonso de Herrera to produce beer in the Indies, islands and mainland of the Ocean Sea, also authorizing him to sell his product in all the parts he wanted, together or retail, and thus to Spaniards and Indians. In a later report, he informs his Majesty that he had set up a good brewery, and that both the Spaniards and the natives of the land drank, which they consider to be better than their pulques.
El Insights of beer reveals the presence of various essential minerals in the body such as phosphorus, calcium, iron, potassium and manganese, as well as vitamins, particularly those of the B complex such as riboflavin and niacin.
The National Institute of Nutrition analyzed three brands of beer and with the following results:
|Elements||Mark A||Mark B||Mark C|
|Thiamine||8.60 mg / 100gr||7.20 mg / 100gr||8.60 mg / 100gr|
|Riboflavin||9.00 mg / 100gr||4.00 mg / 100gr||8.00 mg / 100gr|
|Niacin||8.60 mg / 100gr||17.60 mg / 100gr||19.30 mg / 100gr|
|Football||.09 mg / 100gr||.07 mg / 100gr||.05 mg / 100gr|
|Sodium||5.00 meq / l||2.9 meq / l||1.9 meq / l|
|Potassium||7.60 meq / l||9.4 meq / l||9.60 meq / l|
|Magnesium||2.53 mg / 100gr||3.35 mg / 100gr||2.53 mg / 100gr|
ELABORATION OF THE BEER.
Malting barley: it is the basic raw material for brewing beer. The varieties of barley that are currently planted in Mexico are known by the names of: Apizaco, Porvenir, Puebla, Cerro Prieto, Centinela, Celaya, and Chevalier. The main producing states are: Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Puebla and Mexico.
Hop: plant similar to the vine of which only the "cones" or clusters of female flowers are used, and it is the one that gives it the bitter taste. Depending on the type of beer, the amounts of hops used vary from 100 to 300 grams for each hectoliter of wort, which although it is a small amount, imparts to the beer its delicate aroma and its faint bitter taste, in addition to acting as a clarifying agent contributing to the stabilization of the flavor and retention of foam and is an energetic antiseptic.
Due to the climatic conditions of our country, it is not possible to produce this plant so it must be imported, however studies are being done in order to acclimatize its cultivation in different regions.
The malt: process to which the barley is subjected by means of which it is moistened for its germination during a week approximately. Before the appearance of germination, it is dried, making the starch soluble while also roasting it, which will give the beer its color, if it is up to 80°C the beer will be clear and if it is up to 200°C will be dark.
Maceration: Once the malt is obtained, it is ground and subsequently found with the water, this process that mixes water and ground malt, stirring it permanently while it is subjected to certain temperatures, is called maceration.
Must: Once maceration is achieved, the mixture is filtered, leaving us with the liquid, rich in sugars and starches. This liquid is boiled for more than an hour and during this process hops are added, in a ratio of 100 to 300 gr. For 100 liters of must, which will give the beer that traditional bitter taste and a special aroma.
Once the must is cooked, it is cooled since a living organism called yeast will soon live in it. This body will be in charge of processing the sugars in the must, transforming them into alcohol and carbon dioxide through a fermentation process.
Fermentation: It is carried out in two stages, the first called primary fermentation results in a young beer, and the second fermentation, called secondary fermentation, is responsible for maturing the beer and establishing its flavor. Once this is finished, it is filtered and subsequently packaged, either bottle, can or barrel.
Pasteurization: The last step is to subject the product to a temperature of 62º C for 20 minutes, eliminating any possible microbial alteration.
CONSIDERATIONS ON THE CONSUMPTION OF BEER
DOES THE BEER FAT?
The answer is the same for beer as for any other food. although it agrees to add that the beer does not possess any attribute that causes especially the increase of weight of the organism.
Weight gain is related to the calories that are ingested, which when not used cause an accumulation of a reserve in the tissues, that is, they are stored as fats. If the calorie consumption is balanced, the body does not change its weight. Therefore, it can be affirmed that all food can increase body weight, but to know if it really makes you fat, you should not investigate the food but who consumes it. Sometimes beer is mentioned as a fattening drink and milk, grape or apple juice is not, despite the fact that the caloric content of all these drinks is higher than that of beer.
THE BEER AND THE ALCOHOL.
alcohol is not a foreign substance in the body but is naturally produced by it. It is formed by the breakdown of sugars in the muscles and is always found in amounts equivalent to 0.005%. Alcohol is also found in many other products of normal consumption, as is the case of bread that generally contains between 0.3 to 0.4% and some kinds of sweet bread up to 0.7%.
In moderate doses, the alcohol contained in certain drinks can be ingested not only without danger, but even to evident benefit, especially when it is diluted in a large portion of water and the drink in which it is found possesses nutritional qualities. In studies conducted in the United States, they found that in moderate amounts it helps digestion and dampens the nerves in the brain and relieves physical and mental tension, satisfies a true physiological need. The alcohol content of Mexican beer is 4%.
DOES THE BEER DRUNK?
To produce drunkenness requires ingesting alcohol in excess and having 0.15 to .02% alcohol in the blood. The level of alcohol concentration in the blood derives not only from the amount that has been ingested, but from the concurrence of factors such as the slowness or speed with which its ingestion, absorption and elimination are carried out. Assuming that the volume of any beverage that must be consumed to produce intoxication depends on the alcohol content, the lower the alcohol content, the greater the volume of liquid required to cause poisoning. In this a limit operates, which is the normal human capacity for the consumption of liquids; beyond this point, intoxication is impossible. For the beer to produce drunkenness it is required to consume between 6.3 to 9 liters between three and a half hours; the stomach capacity is 2.2 liters.
Bottom line: you can actually get drunk on beer at the cost of a lot of endurance and patience.