We will define it in principle as an establishment where they serve food and drinks. Called as such, they generally operate at lunch and dinner hours, while those that specialize in serving breakfast are referred to as cafeterias.
Food prices are according to the category of the establishment, which varies according to the place where it is located, the comfort of its facilities and the quality of your service.

There are a series of categories intermediate, from the most modest inn that serves a menu, that is, a series of unique foods for a fixed price and at common tables, to the most luxurious restaurant a la carte, where the client chooses his menu and pays according to the service and quality of the dishes he consumes.
The classic restaurant It is attended by a team of waiters or waiters, under the orders of a Maitre d, who is the officer or chief. He receives customers, is attentive to everything that happens at the tables, directs the service and on special occasions he serves himself. Unlike this one restaurant We will see later the different modalities and categories.

Origin of Restaurants

In ancient times, churches and monasteries used to house travelers and feed them, accepting some donations in return. This situation was used by merchants of the time to create establishments specialized in the sale of food and beverages.
In Egypt, during that same period, there were inns, where rooms and meals were offered to travelers who stopped with their caravans. At the beginning of modern times in 1658, carriages were introduced to England, this development of transportation driving the rise of inns and taverns.
The term "RESTAURANT”Is of French origin, and it was used for the first time in Paris, by designating with this name an establishment founded around 1765, in which drinks and food were served worse as something distinguishing the inns, taverns and eating houses. Its success was immediate and numerous restaurants they were opened. They were served by waiters and butlers who had left their jobs. After the French Revolution in 1789, the ruined aristocracy could not maintain its numerous servants, and many unemployed servants founded or joined this new type of eating house that was emerging in great numbers.
In other countries, the restaurant, as we know it today, dates from the last decades of the nineteenth century, when small establishments with this name began to compete with hotels offering abundant meals, elegantly served and precisely reasonable. In London the first restaurants It opened in 1873.
In Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries, the name "RESTAURANTE" also began to spread, as a type of establishment that was dedicated especially to serving meals. Today the word "FONDA" designates a restaurant, generally very modest.

The taverns arrived on the American continent with the colonizers.

The first restaurant in the United States was called DELMONICO'S, being located in New York City. This establishment served food and beverages and, in addition to having a cashier, was the first of a chain of twelve DELMONICO'S establishments.
Between 1880 and 1890, FRED HARVEY and JOHN R. THOMPSON were the first to establish the great chains of restaurants.
To respond to the demand of the numerous restaurants, in large cities they were forced to create special schools where professional education was given to prepare practical personnel in the different tasks of these establishments, from junior staff, such as: Cooks, Waiters, Desk clerks, etc., to Top staff like Maitres, Chefs and Managers.

How are Restaurants classified?

Like hotels, restaurants also receive a classification based on several concepts: Facilities, services, menu, etc., with the waiters' service at the tables being one of the most valued criteria.
Many countries do not have regulations or classification standards for restaurants, below we will outline a summary of the basic requirements taken as parameters to classify restaurants internationally.

Fine dining (five forks)

This type of establishment must have an effective organization, governed by rules and procedures and have internal and external policies for its management.
Restaurants of this type are generally adorned with very fine woods, the tables and chairs must be in keeping with the decoration; Very good quality rugs, the music (live or ambient) must be soft, the lights (spotlights and lamps) must be adjustable and the air conditioning must be thermostatically controlled.
Food and drinks must be of the highest quality, hygiene must reign in all areas: forehead, saloon, kitchen, bathrooms and, finally, the staff must be properly uniformed.
The service personnel, in addition to being trained for each function, must be periodically trained to ensure efficient and elegant service. In addition, it must have:
-     Entrance for clients independent from that of the service personnel.
-     Cloakroom and hallway or waiting room.
-     Dining room with adequate surface to its capacity.
-     Telephone in isolated booths and cordless telephone for customer service.
-     Air conditioner.
-     Sanitary services with luxury, independent facilities for men and women.
-     Decoration in harmony with the range of the establishment.
-     Cold buffet in sight, in the dining room (optional).
-     Various accessories: flaming trolleys, side tables, fountains.
-  Kitchen equipped with warehouse, cellar, cold room, pantry, office, ovens, grill, grill for fish and meat, sinks, smoke and odor extractors.
-     Menu with a variety of dishes from the kitchen national and international and extensive wine list modified periodically.
-     Duly uniformed personnel.
-     Silver or stainless steel cutlery.
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First class restaurants (four forks)

-     Entrance for clients independent from that of the staff.
-     Waiting Room.
-     Cloakroom (in cold countries).
-     Telephone Wireless.
-     Dining room with adequate surface to its capacity.
-     Air conditioning, heating and cooling.
-     First quality furniture and decoration.
-     Independent sanitary services for men and women.
-   Kitchen with a separate cold room for fish and meat, oven, pantry, warehouse, cellar, sinks and external ventilation.
-     Duly uniformed service personnel.
-     Stainless steel cutlery.

Second-class restaurants (three forks)

-     Entrance for clients independent from that of the service person.
-     Wardrobe.
-     Cordless phone for customer service.
-     Dining room with adequate surface to its capacity.
-     Quality furniture.
-     Independent sanitary services for ladies (includes children) and men.
-     Kitchen with cold room, pantry, sink store, ventilation to the outside.
-     Letter in keeping with the category of the establishment.
-     Duly uniformed service personnel.
-     Stainless steel cutlery.

Third-party restaurants (two forks)

-     Dining room with adequate surface to its capacity.
-     Wireless phone.
-     Adequate furniture.
-     Stainless cutlery, crockery or glass, simple glassware and tablecloths with cloth or paper napkins.
-     Independent sanitary services for men and women.
-     Kitchen with sink with hot water, cold room or fridge, pantry and smoke extractor.
-     Uniformed service personnel in at least a white jacket.
-     Simple letter.

Fourth restaurants (one fork)

-     Separate dining room from the kitchen.
-     Stainless cutlery, crockery and glass, simple glassware, cloth or paper napkins.
-     Decent sanitary services.
-     Perfectly neat staff.
-     Simple letter.

What are the types of Restaurants?

This classification is made based on the type of food they serve in addition to their methodology of service.

Grill

Type of restaurant oriented to American cuisine where grilled and grilled meat, fish and seafood are served. The service must be fast and efficient in these establishments, and the decoration is often oriented to the American West style.

Buffet restaurant

In the mid-70s, the trend of exclusive restaurants for buffets appeared in hotels. This modality has been of great help to be able to feed pleasant groups of tourists in hotels with "All Inclusive" services. These dining rooms, in beach hotels, are large in size and to place the trays with the different types of food they consist of several special dis-plays with integrated heaters and refrigerators to keep the food at the right temperature.

Specialty restaurants (thematic)

They are restaurants that specialize in a type of food like those of Seafood, Vegetarians, Steak Houses or Asaderos, whose specialty is meat. These also include those of nationalities, who specialize in the cuisine of a particular country or region.
-        French cuisine
-        Italian cuisine
-        Spanish Cuisine
-        Chinese cuisine
-        Middle Eastern cuisine
-        Caribbean cuisine
-        Thai cuisine
-        New Latin Cuisine
-        Dominican cuisine
-        Etc.
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What are the areas of a Restaurant?

Front door

Near the entrance you will have to place a sideboard-type piece of furniture that we call "PODIUM" where the reservation book remains and a telephone with a discreet ring for taking reservations and messages.
It is the area where the customer is received, if the restaurant has a hostess (hostess), she must remain there throughout the service to receive and dismiss the customers and will only travel to lead them to their tables. In any case, the Maitre d 'will never leave the door unattended even if he moves around the room to supervise the tables. The door should never be left alone and if an emergency should arise for the hostess, the Maitre d will temporarily appoint a supervisor or any of the service personnel.

Bar and waiting room

First-class and luxury restaurants should have a bar or a small waiting room near the entrance for when there are no tables available and customers have to wait, while having a juice or a cocktail.
In cold countries, restaurants also have a wardrobe in this area, to keep customers during their stay in the establishment, the different extra clothing they use to protect themselves from the cold and snow.
Both in the bar and in the waiting room it is customary to present the menu to the clients and even take the order for when tables are available to seat them according to the order of arrival. In this case, we must notify the kitchen that these customers are in waiting order so that they only make the order go and then we notify them, of course, when they are already seated.

Living room or dining room

Area where the tables are located for customer service. The dining room is divided by "stations or ranges" to facilitate the service and a waiter is appointed in charge of each station (head of range or floor waiter), each waiter would have an assistant or according to what the administration.

Service bar

The luxury restaurants of the hotels do not need to have a bar inside the service room, since the hotels have a waiting room and bars close to these, where guests and clients who are not staying at the hotel can expect to drink. some drinks. In this case they have a service bar that is generally located in the corridor of the Office or in the kitchen; in this way, noises that may disturb diners are avoided. Customers do not have access to this bar, of course since it is exclusively to pass drinks to the waiters of the restaurant or the "Room Service" (room service).

Bathrooms

The services or toilets should be at one end of the room. Ideally, there should be a common access door, both for the ladies and for the men. This door must give access to a small room where the two toilet doors are.

Private rooms

You can allocate part of the room for an independent reserved, a modality that is used more and more by the restaurant clientele every day. It is advisable that this room is separated from the main one by a curtain or sliding door for greater privacy.

Smoking and non-smoking area

Occasionally the room is divided into two areas for these purposes. Generally, the non-smoking area is smaller and more welcoming and to divide it, the air current, the location of the extractors and the breeze current are taken into account when the restaurant does not have air conditioning.

Office

Communication between the kitchen and the service room is ideal when there is a corridor between them, with enough width to serve as an insulating chamber for noise and temperature. This hall is called Office. There should be two doors at the kitchen entrance and two at the dining room entrance, establishing an entry direction and an exit direction; This must have a glass window, which allows to see, if someone by mistake, circulates in the opposite direction.
The Office usually houses the Maitre's office, sometimes the service bar or the cashier, and is the area where the waiters store most of the work material.

What is the kitchen and what are its areas?

We can not fail to make a brief introduction about the kitchen and its main areas, especially the areas that waiters must access in order to carry out their work.
The kitchen is the industrial area of ​​a restaurant, that is, the production area, where the food that will be served in the dining room is made. The kitchen It has a staff led by a "Chef" or "Chef de Cuisine" assisted by a "Sous Chef", followed by the chefs, cooks and assistants. Those in charge of cleaning the kitchen and washing the materials for the service are called “Stewards”, led by a Chief Stewards, who reports to the Executive Chef.
Large hotels with various types of restaurants have small kitchens to supply their food and a large central kitchen with supply stores to supply the others. In these large kitchens, food is prepared for the main restaurant and banquet halls. In the different restaurants, a Chef or Manager is appointed for each kitchen, who report to the General Chef (Executive chef).

Hot kitchen

It is the area where the stoves, the different types of grill, fryers, salamanders, bain-marie, etc. are located.

Cold pantry and pantry

Where all cold dishes are prepared, such as salads and cold cuts. There are also chambers to preserve vegetables and cold rooms to store products to be used in the hot kitchen, such as meat, fish and seafood.

Coffee area

Where the coffee makers and coffee machines are located. It is generally located very close to the Office and there a Mise-En-Place must be set up for the different types of coffee.

Pastry or pastry

Where most of the desserts are served in a restaurant.

Panaderia

Regularly the bakery, pastry shop and ice cream parlor share the same area, with the same manager, but in large hotels due to their magnitude, it is necessary to manage these separately. In the hotel complexes, there is a pastry shop for each hotel and a general bakery, where all the bread consumed in the complex is made.

Command delivery and order reception area

"El Pase", is how it is used to call this area where the waiters deliver the order and receive the dishes. Regularly there will be a kitchen supervisor called occasionally Chef of departure, responsible for receiving and singing the command, in order to make the food go. As long as there is a supervisor in charge of the "pass", this will be the intermediary between the waiters or the kitchen waiter and the cooks of the different areas. He also advises when the dishes must come out, supervises them when leaving and personally delivers them to the waiters in charge of transporting them to the dining room. In establishments where a computerized system operates, the order will be entered from the service station and received in the kitchen by a printer installed in this area.
The dishes where the hot delicacies will be served are previously heated, keeping them on the hot table, which is provided with a lamp with infrared light. When the dishes go out, they are also placed there, until the waiters go for them.
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I am a dreamer and in my dreams I believe that a better world is possible, that no one knows more than anyone, we all learn from everyone. I love gastronomy, numbers, teaching and sharing all the little I know, because by sharing I also learn. "Let's all go together from foundation to success"
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