We will define it in principle as an establishment where they serve food and drinks. Called as such, they generally operate at lunch and dinner hours, while those that specialize in serving breakfast are referred to as cafeterias.
Food prices are according to the category of the establishment, which varies according to the place where it is located, the comfort of its facilities and the quality of your service.

There are a series of categories intermediate, from the most modest inn that serves a menu, that is, a series of unique foods for a fixed price and at common tables, to the most luxurious restaurant a la carte, where the client chooses his menu and pays according to the service and quality of the dishes he consumes.
The classic restaurant It is attended by a team of waiters or waiters, at the orders of a Maitre, who is the officer or chief. He receives customers, is attentive to everything that happens at the tables, runs the service and on special occasions serves himself. Unlike this one restaurant We will see later the different modalities and categories.

Origin of Restaurants

In ancient times, churches and monasteries used to house travelers and feed them, accepting some donations in exchange. This situation was used by merchants of the time to create specialized establishments for the sale of food and beverages.
In Egypt, during that same period, there were inns, where rooms and meals were offered to travelers who stopped with their caravans. At the beginning of modern times in 1658, carriages were introduced to England, this development of transportation driving the rise of inns and taverns.
The term "RESTAURANTIt is of French origin, and was first used in Paris, designating with this name an establishment founded around 1765, in which drinks and meals were served worse as something that distinguishes inns, taverns and food houses. Its success was immediate and numerous restaurants were opened. They were attended by waiters and butlers who had abandoned their jobs. After the French revolution in 1789, the ruined aristocracy was unable to maintain its numerous servitude, and many unemployed servants founded or joined this new type of food house that was emerging in great numbers.
In other countries, the restaurant, as we know it today, dates back to the last decades of the XNUMXth century, when small establishments with this name began to compete with hotels offering abundant meals, elegantly served and precisely priced. In London the first restaurants It opened in 1873.
In Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries, the name “RESTAURANTE” also began to spread, as a type of establishment that was dedicated especially to serving meals. Today the word "FONDA" designates a restaurant, generally very modest.

The taverns arrived on the American continent with the colonizers.

The first restaurant in the United States was called DELMONICO'S, being located in New York City. This establishment served food and drinks and also had a cashier, it was the first in a chain of twelve DELMONICO'S establishments.
Between 1880 and 1890, FRED HARVEY and JOHN R. THOMPSON were the first to establish the great chains of restaurants.
To respond to the demand of the numerous restaurants, in large cities they were forced to create special schools where professional education was given to prepare practical personnel in the different tasks of these establishments, from junior staff, such as: Cooks, Waiters, Desk clerks, etc., to Top staff like Maitres, Chefs and Managers.

How are Restaurants classified?

Like hotels, restaurants also receive a classification based on several concepts: Facilities, services, menu, etc., with the waiters' service at the tables being one of the most valued criteria.
Many countries do not have regulations or classification standards for restaurants, below we will outline a summary of the basic requirements taken as parameters to classify restaurants internationally.

Fine dining (five forks)

This type of establishment must have an effective organization, governed by rules and procedures and have internal and external policies for its management.
Restaurants of this type are generally adorned with very fine woods, the tables and chairs must be in keeping with the decoration; Very good quality rugs, the music (live or ambient) must be soft, the lights (spotlights and lamps) must be adjustable and the air conditioning must be thermostatically controlled.
Food and drinks must be of the highest quality, hygiene must reign in all areas: forehead, saloon, kitchen, bathrooms and, finally, the staff must be properly uniformed.
Service personnel, in addition to being trained for each function, must be regularly trained to guarantee efficient and elegant service. In addition, you should have:
Entrance for clients independent from that of the service personnel.
Cloakroom and hallway or waiting room.
Dining room with adequate surface to its capacity.
Telephone in isolated booths and cordless telephone for customer service.
Air conditioner.
Sanitary services with luxury, independent facilities for men and women.
Decoration in harmony with the range of the establishment.
Cold buffet in sight, in the dining room (optional).
Various accessories: flaming trolleys, side tables, fountains.
Kitchen equipped with warehouse, cellar, cold room, pantry, office, ovens, grill, grill for fish and meat, sinks, smoke and odor extractors.
Menu with a variety of dishes from the kitchen national and international and extensive wine list modified periodically.
Duly uniformed personnel.
Silver or stainless steel cutlery.
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First class restaurants (four forks)

Entrance for clients independent from that of the staff.
Waiting Room.
Cloakroom (in cold countries).
Phone Wireless.
Dining room with adequate surface to its capacity.
Air conditioning, heating and cooling.
First quality furniture and decoration.
Independent sanitary services for men and women.
Kitchen with a separate cold room for fish and meat, oven, pantry, warehouse, cellar, sinks and external ventilation.
Duly uniformed service personnel.
Stainless steel cutlery.

Second-class restaurants (three forks)

Entrance for clients independent from that of the service person.
Wardrobe.
Cordless phone for customer service.
Dining room with adequate surface to its capacity.
Quality furniture.
Independent sanitary services for ladies (includes children) and men.
Kitchen with cold room, pantry, sink store, ventilation to the outside.
Letter in keeping with the category of the establishment.
Duly uniformed service personnel.
Stainless steel cutlery.

Third-party restaurants (two forks)

Dining room with adequate surface to its capacity.
Wireless phone.
Adequate furniture.
Stainless cutlery, crockery or glass, simple glassware and tablecloths with cloth or paper napkins.
Independent sanitary services for men and women.
Kitchen with sink with hot water, cold room or fridge, pantry and smoke extractor.
Uniformed service personnel in at least a white jacket.
Simple letter.

Fourth restaurants (one fork)

Separate dining room from the kitchen.
Stainless cutlery, crockery and glass, simple glassware, cloth or paper napkins.
Decent sanitary services.
Perfectly neat staff.
Simple letter.

What are the types of Restaurants?

This classification is made based on the type of food they serve in addition to their methodology of service.

Grill

Type of restaurant oriented to American cuisine where grilled and grilled meats, fish and seafood are served. The service must be fast and efficient in these establishments, and the decoration is often oriented to the American West style.

Buffet restaurant

In the mid-70s, the trend of exclusive restaurants for buffets appeared in hotels. This modality has been of great help to be able to feed pleasant groups of tourists in hotels with "All Inclusive" services. These dining rooms in beach hotels are large and to place the trays with different types of food they consist of several special dis-plays with integrated heaters and refrigerators to keep food at the right temperature.

Specialty restaurants (thematic)

They are restaurants that specialize in a type of food like those of Seafood, Vegetarians, Steak Houses or Asaderos, whose specialty is meat. These also include nationalities, which specialize in the cuisine of a given country or region.
French cuisine
Italian cuisine
Spanish Cuisine
Chinese cuisine
Middle Eastern cuisine
Caribbean cuisine
Thai cuisine
New Latin Cuisine
Dominican cuisine
Etc.
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What are the areas of a Restaurant?

Front door

Near the entrance you will have to place a sideboard-type piece of furniture that we call "PODIUM" where the reservation book remains and a telephone with a discreet ring for taking reservations and messages.
It is the area where the customer is received, if the restaurant has a hostess (hostess), it must remain there throughout the service to receive and dismiss customers and will only travel to take them to their tables. In any case, the Maitre will never neglect the door, even if he moves around the room to supervise the tables. The door should never be left alone and should an emergency occur to the hostess, the Maitre will temporarily appoint a supervisor or any of the service staff members.

Bar and waiting room

First-class and luxury restaurants should have a bar or a small waiting room near the entrance for when there are no tables available and customers have to wait, while having a juice or a cocktail.
In cold countries, restaurants also have a wardrobe in this area, to keep customers during their stay in the establishment, the different extra clothing they use to protect themselves from the cold and snow.
Both in the bar and in the waiting room, it is customary to present the letter to customers and even take their order when tables are available to sit them in the order of arrival. In this case we must notify the kitchen that these customers are in waiting order so that they only send the command and then we will notify them, of course, when they are already seated.

Living room or dining room

Area where the tables are located for customer service. The dining room is divided into “stations or ranges” to facilitate the service and a waiter is appointed in charge of each station (head of rank or floor waiter), each waiter would have an assistant or as provided by the administration.

Service bar

The luxury restaurants of the hotels do not need to have a bar inside the service room, since the hotels have a waiting room and bars close to them, where guests and clients who are not staying at the hotel can expect to drink. some drinks. In this case they have a service bar that is generally located in the corridor of the Office or in the kitchen; In this way, noises that may disturb diners are avoided. Customers do not have access to this bar, of course since it is exclusively to pass drinks to waiters in the restaurant or "Room Service" (room service).

Bathrooms

The services or toilets should be at one end of the room. Ideally, there should be a common access door, both for the ladies and for the gentlemen. This door should give access to a small room where the two doors of the toilets are.

Private rooms

You can set aside part of the room for some independent booth, a modality that is increasingly used by the restaurant clientele. It is advisable that this room is separated from the main one by a curtain or sliding door for more privacy.

Smoking and non-smoking area

Occasionally the room is divided into two areas for these purposes. Generally, the non-smoking area is smaller and more welcoming, and the air flow, the location of the exhaust fans and the current of the breeze are taken into account when the restaurant does not have air conditioning.

Office

The communication between the kitchen and the service room is ideal when respecting a corridor between the two, with enough width to serve as an insulating chamber for noise and temperature. This hallway is called Office. The doors should be two at the kitchen entrance and two at the entrance to the dining room, establishing an entrance and an exit direction; This must have a glass window, which allows you to see if someone, by mistake, circulates in the opposite direction.
The Office usually houses the Maitre's office, sometimes the service bar or the cashier, and is the area where the waiters store most of the work material.

What is the kitchen and what are its areas?

We can not fail to make a brief introduction about the kitchen and its main areas, especially the areas that waiters must access in order to carry out their work.
The kitchen is the industrial zone of a restaurant, that is, the production area, where the food that will be served in the dining room is prepared. The kitchen it has a staff led by a "Chef" or "Chef de Cuisine" assisted by a "Sous Chef", followed by the chef de partie, cooks and assistants. The ones in charge of cleaning the kitchen and washing the materials for the service are called "Stewards", led by a Chief Stewards, who reports to the Executive Chef.
Large hotels with various types of restaurants have small kitchens to supply their food and a large central kitchen with supply stores to supply the rest. Food in the main restaurant and banquet halls is prepared in these large kitchens. In the different restaurants a Chef or Manager is appointed for each kitchen, which are reported to the Chef General (Executive chef).

Hot kitchen

It is the area where the stoves, the different types of grill, fryers, salamanders, bain-marie, etc. are located.

Cold pantry and pantry

Where all cold dishes are prepared, such as salads and cold cuts. There are also chambers to preserve vegetables and cold rooms to store products that will be used in hot cooking, such as meat, fish and seafood.

Coffee area

Where the coffee machines and coffee machines are located. It is generally very close to the Office and there must be a Mise-En-Place for the different types of coffee.

Pastry or pastry

Where most of the desserts are served in a restaurant.

Panaderia

The bakery, patisserie and ice cream parlor regularly share the same area, with the same manager, but in large hotels due to their magnitude, it is necessary to manage these separately. In hotel complexes, there is a pastry shop for each hotel and a general bakery, where all the bread consumed in the complex is made.

Command delivery and order reception area

"The Pass" is what it is customary to call this area where the waiters deliver the command and receive the dishes. Regularly there will be a kitchen supervisor occasionally called Chef de partie, responsible for receiving and singing the command, in order to get the food going. As long as there is a supervisor in charge of the “pass”, this will be the intermediary between the waiters or the kitchen waiter and the cooks in the different areas. The latter also advises when the dishes are due to come out, supervises them when leaving and personally delivers them to the waiters in charge of transporting them to the dining room. In establishments where a computerized system works, the order will be typed from the service station and received in the kitchen through a printer installed in this area.
The dishes where the hot delicacies will be served, are previously heated, keeping them on the hot table, which is provided with a lamp with infrared light. When the dishes come out, they are also placed there, until the waiters come for them.
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