leadership within administrative activity
The role of leadership within administrative activity is becoming increasingly valuable in the business world. Its relationship with some psychological and organizational behavior variables from which it is identified and developed is evident. This work approaches the processes, Communicative, especially interpersonal transactions, possible generators of unnecessary or genuine conflicts in the framework of human relations within the company. Significant points of view are exposed and a theoretical reflection is made on these factors from an analytical point of view based on a better understanding of human nature and the insertion of the individual into groups under a new vision of our social behavior.
Whenever we talk about Administration ScienceWe cannot fail to refer to the so widely known cycle of management functions. Countless researchers have dedicated many years of study in order to obtain a better way to carry out the command and that is why today we have many theories that speak in favor of how we can better plan, organize work efficiently and effectively , how we can make better use of power and thus adequately delegate tasks and how to better manage resources in this regard.
Perhaps due to my condition as a psychologist, I am inclined to give a privileged place to the world of interpersonal relationships and leadership within the organizational framework, as one of the oldest links of humanity and as one of the most peculiar ways that groups have. to address who represents them. The leadership Today it is perhaps the most pertinent of all the concepts of behavioral science and that is why managers with more experience in this field attach great importance to it. The bosses are confronted daily with responsibilities and command, they assume functions, form teams and resolve conflicts of all kinds. The typical question then arises as to what is the best style to lead and how can a commitment and loyalty be achieved among the members of a group, what is the best way to respond to power, to reward or punish. Have you thought about the repercussion that this would bring to the group, and how the decision to impress personality on the matter can compromise the achievement of the objectives, goals and plans of an organization?
The differences in power and status that exist between supervisors and subordinates are real, they cannot be ignored or eliminated, so the issue in question is how the boss exercises power and what consequences it could ultimately bring. Management style is basically an interpersonal transaction. One's assumptions about people and the exercise of power are communicated verbally or by other sign systems through an interpersonal encounter.
A potentially powerful framework for understanding these encounters is given in Harris's (based on Eric Berne) work on the Analysis Transactional. In each of the transactional relationships between one or more individuals, terminologies are used that can damage communication and, therefore, lead to the appearance of unnecessary or genuine conflicts, with their consequent results. Hence the variables communication, leadership and conflicts make up a whole worthy of Insights. Presumably, then, transactions in interpersonal relationships can be a direct source of conflict. It is the interest of this material to approach this subject from the theoretical-integrative point of view.
When people interact in any context, a social transaction inevitably occurs in which one person reacts to the other. The study of such transactions has been given the name of Analysis Transactional. The term was first proposed by Eric Berne in the 50s, and it referred to a type of psychotherapy. The Insights Transactional starts from the premise that there are in each personality the elements of parent, adult and child. People interact with each other from these three different psychological positions known as ego states.
All people are considered to function from one of the three and maintain specific language codes in each case. People who act from the parent ego state are often protective, controlling, encouraging, critical, or encouraging. They can refer dogmatically to norms and policies, with the words "always", "never", "must", "should"; of global evaluative feedback, such as "how stupid you are"; specific descriptive feedback, such as "it irritates me that you leave the papers disorganized"; statements that induce guilt, such as "if you respect me ... .." and physical indications, such as pointing fingers in an accusatory manner. The father in us can use withdrawal of affection and fundamentally tries to resolve conflicts from the perspective of obligation, making use of the power he has.
The adult ego state is expressed in rational, calculating, objective and non-emotional behavior. These people try to improve strategic under the focus of the questions, they are interested in how, when, where, why; They seek hard facts and information and have objective discussions. They are shown in a variety of phrases such as "I see", "I consider", "from my point of view", "in my opinion". They emphasize problem solving and are cooperative in conflict resolution. In terms of power, the ideal manager would be considered.
Finally, the child Ego that is in us, reflects the emotions developed in infantile stages, behaves carelessly in its posture, looks away or looks down. He is dependent, spontaneous, creative, competitive, and approaches conflict resolution through avoidance and flexibility in the situation.
The conversations we have are a mixture of the three states of the I. Each of them has positive and negative characteristics. Our tone of voice, postures, gestures and facial expressions can reflect in us the state of SELF. Depending on the types of transactions that are established, different types of conflicts may or may not appear given within the framework of the relationships. The transactions in which the ego state of the sender and receiver are compatible in terms of the directionality of the responses and are represented in parallel, are the so-called complementary transactions. On the other hand, cross or non-complementary transactions interrupt the communication.
If we had to frame the situation, we would say that interpersonal and intra-group conflicts can emerge at the same time. The postures of the members are in opposition, which can run amok in a defensive position. In some cases the child defends himself with words from previous stages such as "I don't care", "do it yourself", and others, to which the manager can respond by using the power entrusted to him. The conflicts interpersonal they represent a serious problem because they really deeply affect the individual's emotions. There is a need to protect the self-image from possible harm caused by others. Relationships can be at risk and deteriorate. Sometimes temperaments between two people can collide.
Analyzing the matter in more depth, we see that in this case there can be conflicts in a psychological order and imply different needs between the parties, as well as inequality of power and belonging. They can be related to people's values and their level of information on the matter they defend. For this reason we must analyze each of the positions, interests and needs. The conflict then becomes an interactional process that has a beginning, development and end situation in which a critical moment intervenes.
We see that the conflict worsens when the number of people involved increases and when the latter are influenced. It is an antagonistic and complex process according to the number of people involved, the urgency of resolution and the time we have to solve it. But also, this process is co / built by the parties. That is, the two people (child-parent) construct the problem. They have a shared responsibility as well as their solution based on the different styles of conflict management and resolution. We can consider in this case the conflict as a dependent variable and the development of the contradictions that occur in the transaction and their consequent differences as an independent variable.
The conflict in this relationship is not the process itself, but all the differences. It generates changes and is substantial in the business environment. To analyze it, time is a fundamental factor to consider. When the conflict process is long, there are possibilities to analyze it more calmly, but when it is short, events pile up and it becomes more blurred.
The emotional conflicts that occur in this transaction and communication barriers of this type affect the proper functioning of the company. Communication barriers of an emotional nature cause a psychological distance between people, while emotional conflict makes people perceive their opposites as entities that affect or are about to affect your emotional integrity. Decision conflicts are also given in the case of the use of the power of the manager, who perceives his environment as threatening and invades his authority. The perception of power a acquires another nuance of response and the supervisor will enter into a decision conflict.
The transaction between leaders that always occurs from father to child, does not always mark a negative result in terms of labor relations, but it should be noted that when the employee becomes accustomed to a state of child ego in his transactions, he does not mature, Nor does it learn to contribute ideas, which does not facilitate the taking of strategic In the organization. The concept of transaction somehow highlights the responsibility that exists on both sides in the interaction, depending on how employees and managers initiate or respond.
The conflict begins with the reaction of employees to strategic The employer and the styles of resolution of the same depends to a large extent on the moment, the circumstances and the content that contains the conflict itself, that is, its essence. Conflicts in parent-child transactions can be based on a great variety of elements, such as organizational change, different values of people, perceptions and opposing points of view, which favor other varieties such as: interpersonal conflicts, intra -group, inter-group and organizational or institutional. The position of the father reaches the resolution of conflicts through the use of fear or the threat of punishment in the exercise of power. The difference in status in this case creates a communication barrier and at the same time offers a source in itself of conflict over the use of power. The child's posture is one of avoidance and responding flexibly to conflict. They belong to the group of "yes people".
In the case of the adult, solutions accurate to resolve and avoid unnecessary or genuine conflicts. This is considered to be the most feasible way to trade. Trying to communicate openly as the adult does, it is the best way to be assertive and to reach out to others. If we want to be:
- We must describe the behavior that causes us dislike. Rather than prosecute it, it is about exposing it as it is.
- We must express our feelings so that we can communicate in a more involved way. This shows commitment to what we are saying.
- We must create empathy so that the other person knows that we intend to understand them from their point of view.
- We must try to negotiate change. At this point we show what we want to change about the other person.
- We must explain the consequences of the change.
The adult-adult transaction demonstrates acceptance of self and others, the other positions are less mature. The important thing is that this posture can be learned and with it also learn to manage conflicts. So we must try to work in that direction.