Customer Service Design
The decade of the 90s was characterized, in the field of business management, among other things due to the increase in customer service. This should have been the case since the production systems must respond, in the shortest possible time and with the minimum cost, to the needs of its customers, which are increasingly diverse and individualized. All this with a view to guaranteeing the necessary competitiveness that allows production systems to remain in the market. This trend has continued to manifest itself at the beginning of the new century.
The solution to achieve an adequate level of competitiveness is to place the client and their needs at the central point of attention of the production systems and achieve the coordination of the latter through the logistics approach, since obtaining an efficient response to the client exceeds the limits of the production system and requires integrating the entire logistics system as a chain of continuous processes that are activated at the moment the customer demands the product - service. The chain must work "pulled" by the customer.
What the client actually demands is a service and not a product or merchandise itself. This criterion is endorsed by a group of authors [ACEVEDO]; [CARLZON, p. fifteen]; [GALVÃO, p. 15]; [FONTES, p. 2]; [RONALDO]; [693, pp. 8, 88-179]; [ANDERSON]. The service encompasses or is based on a product and is more comprehensive than this. A product divorced from a service does not represent much for the customer and leads to their alienation.
Correctly understanding the needs and preferences of customers becomes a key issue to draw up the competitive strategy of the logistics system. In the case of systems that face productions in large series, it is less complex to draw a competitive strategy based on the client, since there is clarity and homogeneity regarding the characteristics of the service demanded.
However, for those who work by orders, that is, unit productions or small series, it becomes a complex process to draw the appropriate strategy because there is high variability in terms of the characteristics of the service that customers demand.
GENERAL CONCEPTS ABOUT CUSTOMER SERVICE
Un the service It is the act or set of acts by which a product or group of products is achieved to satisfy the needs and desires of the customer.
When approaching customer service, three interrelated aspects of it must be properly conceptualized:
- Demand for service. They are the characteristics desired by the client for the service that he demands and the availability and possibility of the same to pay for it with such characteristics.
- Service goal. They are the relevant values and characteristics set as a target for the set of parameters that characterize the service that the provider offers to its customers. This goal can be set as unique for all clients, differentiated by type of client or agreed client to client.
- Service level. Degree to which the service goal is met.
This leads to rethinking the traditional scheme of distribute what is produced to the scheme of distribute what the customer needs. For this, the company must define a service philosophy, expressed in terms of: attitude, organization and responsibility that opens the way to the establishment of a service strategy.
The elements to consider to establish a service strategy:
a) The client. You have to identify exactly who the customer is and the needs and desires that they really have.
b) competition. It is necessary to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the competitors and thereby establish a better customer service than the competition, that is, one that provides competitive advantage.
- The patterns, custom y odds of clients
The service strategy needs to be evaluated in terms of how much income it reports to the company and what is the cost of its application to guarantee the viability of such strategy.
In the development of the service strategy within the framework of the competition, it should be considered that a very low level of service, even if it is “economic”, in the long run lowers, over time, the market share. and leads to losing the latter.
When establishing the customer service strategy, other factors should be considered, such as:
- Market segments. The market cannot be analyzed only globally, but in its various strata or segments, since each one behaves according to different factors and has different repercussions on the company. To segment the market, it is necessary to select the parameters that define the customer's attitude community. These parameters include:
- Geographic location
- Branch of activity
- Income level
- Professional level
- Life conditions
- Environmental conditions
A specific service level must be designed for each segment. It is not economical to generalize the same level of service to the entire market.
- The position of the product in its life cycle. It is not the same level of service that should be offered for a product when it is in the launch phase as for one that is in the maturity stage.
- Components of customer service. The level of service can be expressed by:
- the level of service offered
- the level of service provided
- the level of service perceived by the customer
The objective of the company must be to guarantee that there are no differences between the level of service offered and the level of service perceived, in any of the service components.
The customer service has as components:
- Product quality
- Variety of products
- Product Features
- Product reliability
- After sales service
- Response time
- Delivery time
In each case, it should be assessed from the customer's appreciation which are the most important elements and around them design the improvement of the level of service. To carry out this study, a representative and stratified sample can be surveyed for each market segment where it is requested to weight the level of importance of each element (the sum must be 100 points) or offer a range of alternative options between elements so that the customer express their preferences.
- Evolution of competition and customer needs. It is necessary to come to envision what will be the behavior of the client's needs (changes in the weighting of the elements of the service) and of the competitors in the future in order to be able to define the actions to maintain competitiveness from there. When this factor is not analyzed, competitive success can be achieved today but tomorrow it will be seen how ground is lost using the same policy that gave it success.
Every entrepreneur must be aware that working in a competitive market requires achieving a certain level of service as a condition of survival. It depends on your strategic capacity that you can identify what minimum level of service you must achieve to stay in the market and what is the level of service that allows you to achieve the competitive advantage in certain market segments.
In turn, that same employer must consider that it is not enough to identify which is the successful service strategy, but that the solution of the multiple interdepartmental conflicts that arise is required for its full application, such as:
a) The struggle of each department to obtain for itself the largest financial allocation.
b) The objectives of costs and services for one department are incompatible for others.
c) The company establishes performance standards for each department and consequently it struggles to achieve them, which may in certain cases contradict the selected strategy.
d) Each department may have a different perception of what is the most efficient service for the company.
Here arise the trade offs between departments and functions that the employer must master and solve. It is important to note that on many occasions trade offs are focused mainly from the cost calculation point of view. However, deep down what exists is a contradiction between functions. In addition, in the company there is a chain of trade offs.
For example, in strategic Of purchase there is a trade off between purchase that tends to increase the order to ensure production and finances that seeks to minimize disbursement to reduce immobilization. In addition, this trade off is related to the trade offs of buying now or later, the transportation variant, the selection of products and others.
SERVICE LEVEL MEASUREMENT
The level of service constitutes one of the fundamental elements of the link between the supplier and the customer. Figure 1 shows the different gaps that can be found in the supplier-customer relationship.
Although work should be done on reducing all gaps, the provider's fundamental focus of attention should be on achieving a maximum reduction of gap 5; For this, it is necessary to take as a basis the elements provided by the measurement of the service level.
In logistics, the ways to measure the level of customer service are diverse. Some important meters are:
- Duration of the order - delivery cycle.
- Variance of the order-delivery cycle duration.
- Product availability.
- Information on the status of the order throughout the entire logistics chain.
- Flexibility in unusual situations.
- Returns of excess and defective products.
- Responses to emergencies.
- Performance without errors (in the product and in the information that reaches the customer).
- Delivery time.
- Treatment and relations with the client.
- Completion (quantity and assortment) of orders.
- After-sales service.
- Claims attention time.
- Warranty service.
Each company must select which are the service level meters to be used according to the customer service demands, establish service goals in each one, control their real behavior and implement actions to eliminate detected or predicted deviations.
The general service level of the company is given by the multiplicative integration of the selected particular meters. For example: in a company, the parameters of product availability, time of satisfaction of the customer's order and level of acceptance of customers for quality and completeness have been selected to measure customer service, obtained values of 98%, 95% and 94% respectively, which results in an overall service level of:
NS = 0,98 * 0,95 * = 0,94 0,875
NS = 87,5%
By measuring the level of service based on whatever indicator the selected starting point are orders of customers. Depending on the level of aggregation used in the analysis of the orders, different values will be reached and different problems will be reflected.
The measurement and evaluation of the service level should not be carried out only based on the supplier-client relationship, in this process it is necessary to carry out a comparative analysis of the behavior of the competition. Failure to consider the behavior of the competition can lead the company to the loss of customers.
The customer window as a service measurement tool
The customer window not only helps to characterize the service that is being provided, but also allows answering questions such as:
- How can a company be close to the customer?
- How can you know the customer's requirements?
- Who exactly are the customers?
- Are there external consumers of a product or service just like you have internal consumers?
- Who defines quality?
- What information should customers have in the development of a product or service?
- Who should talk to customers?
Therefore, this is a tool that can also be used in the design of customer service. The client window It is based on three premises:
- Everyone in an organization has customers. The customer can be the last user (external consumer) or someone within the organization (internal consumer). A customer is anyone who is provided with a service or a product, however, their behavior is not the same with all their suppliers, it is a function of the customer-supplier interdependence [KUMAR, p. 103].
- Everyone, not just the marketing department, can benefit from having more customer information. Consequently, it is necessary to broaden the flow of affirmation, which sustains technological innovation in information systems [SPRAGUE, p.52].
- Quality is defined by the customer. To improve quality, it is necessary to identify what the client wants and what he is not obtaining, by then, if possible, provide it [RAMÍREZ, p. 107]
Figure 4. Representation of the client window
The customer window provides a concrete visual guide for discussions about the quality and level of service provided, as well as to know the value of each attribute in the product. This analysis is applicable not only to end customers, but can also be extended to internal customers.
The steps to create the client window are as follows:
- Identify and segment the customer base
- Develop the questionnaire
- Define the sample and carry out data collection
- Analyze and summarize data
- Taking decisions
1. Identify and segment the customer base
To start a customer study, first, we must identify and segment them.
- Who are the internal customers?
- Who are the external clients?
Customer segmentation will be studied in more detail in the section dedicated to customer service design.
2. Develop the questionnaire
Keep in mind the following:
- Clarify goals and objectives. What information is required and why. Each question must contribute to the final purpose.
- Avoid ambiguous questions
- Don't create confusion with questions
- Remember the quadrants of the client window. Ask: “how well” and “how important”. Review how important something is to the customer and how well the product or service meets this attribute. Combining these answers will help you place the data in the appropriate quadrant of the client window.
3. Define the sample and carry out data collection
Clients must be chosen who are representative of all our clients. There are different ways to obtain consumer data: questionnaires, interviews, nominal group techniques, clinics, selected groups, sources by mail, by telephone, etc.
4. Analyze and summarize the data
The comments obtained in the quadrant of: “what customers want and do not get”, are the first candidates for improvement.
Other techniques for analyzing data such as the Pareto chart can help synthesize the information.
5. Take action
When the consumer identifies something that requires modification, take this as a new project, assign resources, schedule activities, and establish control measures.
CUSTOMER SERVICE DESIGN
The design of customer service constitutes the starting point of the design of logistics systems, if the moments that the logistics system goes through are taken into account, it is clear that the design of customer service is the result of decision-making strategic type.
The design of customer service implies the analysis of the organization that will provide the service and that of the customers who will receive it.
For an adequate design of customer service, the procedure that appears in figure 5 must be followed.
This procedure has to be implicit in the actions that the logistics company systematically undertakes that allows it not to drown in the enormous load and tension that the operational activity of logistics implies. A demanding logistics system must be able to critically evaluate the logistics system constantly and implement improvement measures in its own right to make operational, that is, adopt a policy of continuous improvement.
Select the market segments that are targets of the logistics system.
This must be supported by an adequate study of the market that can be covered by the products - services offered by the logistics system. To increase the market, parameters are used that define the community of interests of the clients. Some of these parameters are: geographical location, branch of activity, sex, age, income level and professional level.
Segmentation is carried out by selecting one or more variables that must be: measurable, accessible, substantial, maneuverable, reliable, valid, stable, homogeneous and generalizing. Consequently, the selection is based on the answers to the question - What does each customer segment want?
Usually different clients want different things. Each segment can be elaborated with answers to questions such as:
- What is important to customers?
- What do they like about the product / service?
- What don't you like?
- How could this customer be satisfied?
- How does this customer define quality?
- Who is the competition in this service?
- What is the size of this segment?
- What percentage of the total business is represented by that segment?
Segmentation techniques generally try to group consumers by their similarity with respect to the variable to be explained, for example, in the use of a certain product, the groups that are formed should be as different as possible. Among them we can mention: the contingency table, the Belson method, the 2, the method Automatic Interaction Detection (AID) and factor analysis.
These statistical methods are applicable if there is a set of data that allows for market segmentation, although this requires time to collect and process the information. If the necessary data is not available, it is recommended to start with the a priori method, which consists of selecting the variables according to the experience of the sales personnel and following up with the statistical methods previously exposed, after completing the information base. In the method of grouping customers by segment "a priori", techniques are used according to experts.
To objectively define the level of service to be offered to customers, it is necessary to classify them into groups according to their characteristics, wishes and possibilities, so that the level of service that each customer demands can be guaranteed. The process of grouping clients is not always easy, however, there are different methods that help in this regard as indicated in the bibliography [CARLZON, JAN]; [BALLOU, p. 32]; some of these methods are: ABC analysis, cluster analysis (or conglomerates), discrimination analysis and factor analysis.
Customer groups can be characterized based on parameters of industriousness of service that are identified with the cost drivers for each activity of the system [González, p.49]. The scale of the parameters to measure the level of industriousness is given in a range from 1 to 5, ordered from least to greatest according to their influence on the parameters of the logistics system (logistics cost, logistics cycle and service level) for each group of customers. The characterization of the market segments allows, on the one hand, to confirm the existing differences between the market segments and, on the other, the design of the organization to provide customer service.
Study the demand for customer service
Demand studies have two approaches: Composition and Decomposition. Generally, the selected approach is directed towards composition, because it allows proactively dampening the possible negative effects of the sudden variation in demand.
In the calculation of demand, qualitative and quantitative techniques can be applied depending on the level of understanding, for the strategic decisions that are taken.
The methods for forecasting demand [ANDERSON, p. 155] are selected for their characteristics, agreeing those that are appropriate to the objective conditions of the system under study, based on a weighting of the following criteria: cost, precision, weakness, resources and application.
To study and determine exactly what is the demand for customer service that has the logistics system must:
- select a sample of clients from each market segment to be addressed Clarify
- collect criteria on the characteristics of the service requested and the degree of importance of each one Clarify
- collect criteria on the evaluation of each characteristic of the service being offered Clarify
- determine the demand for the service
- fully assess the distance between the expected service and the provided Force Field
Project the goal and the level of service to guarantee
Taking into account the level of service expected by customers, the patterns of behavior, the capacity of the logistics system to provide the service demanded and the situation of the competition, the service goal and the level of service to guarantee for each must be defined. customer group.
The projection of the service level can be done through two alternatives. The first is to determine the optimal economic level of service to be offered, this alternative has the risk of not taking into account the situation of the competition. The second alternative starts from setting the level of service of the competition and looking for the lowest cost design for that level, in this way the competition is taken into account, but there is a risk of not working with the optimal level of service Under the economical point of view.
The goal and level of service is established individually for each group of clients based on the characteristics of the proposed service. Compliance with the characteristics of the service is determined through the service level meters by market segment, allowing the quality of the service provided to be evaluated.
Design the organization to provide customer service
The content of the organization to adopt to provide customer service encompasses a broad set of aspects that can be structured according to the question it answers (see table 1).
Table 1. Organizational content to provide customer service
|Question mark||Definitions to be achieved|
||Characteristics of the culture of the organization to face superior customer service
||Characterization of customer groups
Characteristics of the care to be given to each group
Information system and customer orientation
||Content of the service provided
||Procedures for the client to request the service
Procedures (technology) to provide the service
||Personnel in charge of providing the service: quantity, functions, characteristics, aesthetics, ethics and qualification.|
Magnitude of the relevant service parameters
||Duration of response cycles and service execution|
||List of means to be used (equipment, utensils, furniture, devices, facilities, technical means and others).|
||Place to provide the service. Its location and layout.|
||Define only tasks and actions that add value to customer service.
Objectives and goals of customer service.
Once the content of the organization has been projected, it is convenient to prepare the customer service manual, which is very useful as a guide for supervisors, as it serves as a tool for systematic evaluation and to train personnel in the logistics system.
The optimal linkage of the characteristics of the service with the methods for the design of the service organization determines a higher performance of the client and a lower cost for the maintenance of the plaza. Consequently, a procedure is proposed, which integrates the factors imposed by the client and the methods that the design must consider, which is shown in Figure 6.
The factors that influence the design of the organization according to the characteristics of the service are:
- Type of service: The service matrix is made up of four quadrants that relate the degree of interaction – adaptation (high and low), with the intensity of labor (high and low). Using the magnitude of the variables, it is located in a quadrant that responds to a type of service. The representation of the technique is shown in figure 7 SCHROEDER, p. 154.
- Marketing strategy: It is achieved through the complexity and uniqueness matrix. The magnitude of the variables sets a quadrant in the matrix that determines the key factors regarding the type of marketing. The technique is shown in Figure 8.
- Centralization: It is a characteristic related to the geographic market, an important aspect in the organization of the service. As local ties increase, centralization decreases. In a logistics platform all types of links can appear, its function is to balance them all in the interest of the efficient and effective operation of the entire system. The following factors are considered in the determination:
- Sales force size: The smaller it is, the more likely it is to be centralized.
- Geographic dispersion: As the size of the market grows, customer service tends to decline, selling expenses generally increase, and control becomes more difficult.
- Weight of Personal Selling: The more important the role of personal selling in the promotional mix, the greater the need for field sales supervisors with responsibility and authority over the local market.
- Types of distribution channels: The more direct the distribution channels used, the more likely it is that inventories of decentralized products will be required in branches close to customers.
- Number of customer service requirements: The greater the sales and after-sales services, the greater the need for decentralized operations.
- Number of complex product lines: The individualized customer service by type of product is defined based on their increase.
- Sales level, number of similar products and number of market segments: The specialization of the performance of functional activities is determined as their magnitudes decrease.
- These factors translate into characteristics for decision-making in the selection of methods in terms of:
- Type of service package: It is established by the most appropriate combination based on the expectations of customers through tangible and intangible attributes. The content of the package is based on the uniqueness level, classified in descending order: unique, selective, restricted and generic, and its relationship with the type of service [BUTTLE, p. 4].
- Contact type: It is defined through the service-system matrix [CHASE, p. 123], allows you to obtain the form of contact with the customer depending on the type of service and package. The author also includes new forms of contact with the client such as telemarketing and electronic commerce. The use of both forms is not very attractive due to the current Cuban market conditions for oil products, however, it should be clarified that the logistics platform does not limit its application but rather favors it.
- Type of skills: The matrix of the service – system matrix [BUTTLE, p. 9] allows you to define the basic skill for the salesperson's job profile.
- Operation focus: It is set according to the type of basic skill to define the way CHASE operations are performed, p.124.
- Technological innovation: It is also defined based on the type of basic skill, making it possible to establish the necessary means to carry out the CHASE skill, p.124.
Table 2. Vendor requirements
|Bass||Degree of contact between client and server||Alto|
|Workers Requirements||Office skills||Helping skills||Verbal skills||Procedural skills||Trade skills||Diagnostic skills|
|Focus of operations||Paper handling||Efficient Of demand||Scripting for calls||Flow control||Efficient Of capacity||Client mix|
|Automate office.||Path methods||Databases on the computer||Electronic aids||Self service||Client team - worker|
- Form of organization: It is centered around products, markets and functions [ANDERSON, p. 182-190]. Several separate companies mix these items differently. The selection depends on the number of complex product lines, level of sales, number of similar products, number of market segments and level of centralization.
The design of the service organization implies the determination of the number and selection of personnel. The number of workers is a function of customer waiting times. The tools used are the waiting phenomenon models, using the following steps for their application:
- Select the model based on customer population, channel numbers, service discipline, arrivals, and service times [KOTLER, p. 329].
- Check if the characteristics that make up the structure of a waiting line system are common to different models that exist.
- Obtain data for the study of waiting lines from continuous observations that is applied to each of the sellers.
- Check the data obtained through a time study.
- Apply the selected model to determine the busiest salespeople and the possibility of adjustment, if there is a bottleneck in the system.
The selection of personnel focuses on those candidates who demonstrate their aptitudes in accordance with the requirements established by the organization, in the interests of its objectives.
The Marketing function responds to the characteristics of complexity and uniqueness of the service and the types of contacts. The service has structurally evolved through five stages: simple sales organization, sales organization with auxiliary functions, separate marketing organization, modern marketing organization, and progressive marketing organization and the organizations can be found in each of them.
6. Define the critical parameters of the logistics system to guarantee customer service. Project the content and magnitude of the critical parameters of the logistics system.
The customer's place is key in the design and operation of the logistics system, which highlights the need to define the critical parameters of the system, which are parameters that are associated with the critical issues. The latter are those problems whose solution contributes to achieving the objectives set by the logistics system. Figure 13 represents the role of the customer in the logistics system.
Critical parameters become the valves of the logistics system, which allow compliance with the level of customer service. However, the actions are aimed at maintaining balance in two directions to alleviate or enhance the forces. Consequently, the method selected after applying the dynamic balance [ACEVEDO, 2002] is the force field analysis, which allows obtaining the two types of critical success factors by working with experts. In the selection of experts, their general knowledge of the logistics system must be combined with the analysis of the balance of each activity.
Once the critical parameters of the system have been defined, it is essential, in order to guarantee the proper functioning of the logistics system, to determine for each of them what their content and magnitude should be, so as to guarantee the achievement of the proposed objectives with the greatest rationality. possible.
Design the offer and promotion of customer service.
The role that information plays in the client is decisive for them to be able to assess the level of satisfaction they can expect from the logistics system and therefore establish their level of commitment to the system; that is why in the offer of the service all the customer's questions must be satisfied. For its part, promoting customer service must also be very transparent in order to attract potential customers.
Generally, the offer is made in the form of service packages characterized by:
- The product delivery terms, which depend on assuming or not the responsibility for the quality, custody, transport and safety of the product until the moment in which the property transfer is made.
- La contract form It is selected depending on the variables laboriousness of the service and the terms of delivery, which are related, forming the service contracting matrix.
- El price depending on the established regulations.
- The breaches of the parties they are penalized by fines for the parameters agreed upon by mutual agreement.
Principles for designing customer service
The beginning to observe in the design of customer service are:
- Service differentiation for the different market segments. For each market segment, the most appropriate level of service must be designed; not always a single customer service design is capable of satisfying all the market segments that the company must serve.
- Competitiveness The design of the service that is carried out must, in addition to fully satisfy the needs of the clients, guarantee the competitiveness of the company so that it can remain in the market.
- Rationality. Meeting customer needs and staying in the market must be done on the basis of adequate rationality in the use of resources and processes.
- Customer satisfaction. All action in the provision of the service must be aimed at achieving customer satisfaction. This satisfaction must be guaranteed in quantity, quality, time and price.
- The operation of the logistics system as black box for the customer. The company must be able to satisfy the needs of its clients and carry out the controls of its processes without the need for the latter to have direct influence on the client.
- Service goal transparency both for the client and for those who provide and support the service. The customer has the right to know what to expect from the service provided by the company, for example, delivery of the order in three days. If the service goal is not clear, the customer may form a misconception about the service. In the same way, whoever provides the service must be fully aware of the service goal that they can commit to so as not to create false expectations in the client.
- Customization . The service is provided not to an indistinct customer but to a specific person (or group) and should be treated as such.
CUSTOMER SERVICE PLANNING
In each period, the company must specify the actions to provide a competitive service to its clients and for this it must develop its Client Service Plan that guarantees to satisfy the specific demands that it expects to receive from its potential clients.
This plan constitutes the basis for the rest of the company's plans and is made from studying the market that is the company's objective and estimating what the true needs, demands and desires of customers are in those markets. This plan cannot be a passive plan in the face of an increasingly competitive environment, so it requires contemplating communication with clients before receiving the service (it is necessary to communicate to potential clients that the services they demand are offered by the company with a differentiation in relation to other competitors), during the provision of the service (it is necessary to interact with the client to satisfy their wishes and not wait until the end of the service to check if the client was satisfied or not) and after the service as element of feedback and verification that the planned service level indicators were achieved).
The Customer Service Plan is prepared for different periods (week, month, quarter, year). In each one of the periods, capacities, resources, personnel training and specific promotional campaigns must be ensured that ensure satisfactory compliance in each of the intervals.
The content of the Customer Service Plan is as follows:
- Nomenclature of the services offered
- Demand for each of the services offered
- Service level indicators to be achieved
- Level of resources demanded
- Inventory levels required
- Definition of resource providers
- Alliances necessary to provide a more comprehensive customer service
- Magnitude of capacity required to provide the service
- Cost of service
- Communication with the client: before, during and after the service (techniques, means, content and way of developing communication)
The Customer Service Plan (PSC) includes services already designed, although the planning process itself arises the need to design new services to meet certain needs or expectations of customers.
The study of the market and the behavior of potential customers allows the planning process to be offered information on the magnitudes and characteristics of the demands for services in the market for which it is working.
A flexible and modular design of services makes it possible to immediately design or redesign new services in the planning process itself or even on the operational level.
The interrelationship between market research, service planning and service design is shown in the following figure:
|1.||ACEVEDO SUÁREZ, JOSÉ A. “Materials for the Industrial Logistics course”. Postgraduate course taught at UNEXPO, Barquisimeto, Venezuela, 1995.|
|2.||ALBRECHT, KARL, and LAWRENCE J. BRADFORD. EXCELLENCE IN SERVICE. Know and understand your customers! 3R EDITORES LTDA, 1998, Colombia.|
|3.||ANDERSON, ROLPH E. Administrators de ventas.-2nd ed.-Mexico: McGraw-Hill, 1995.|
|4.||ANDERSON, DAVIS L. AND ROBERT G. HOUSE. Logistics and Material Handling Systems in the United States: Trends and Outlook.|
|5.||BALLOU, RONALD H. Business Logistics. Control and planning. Ed. Díaz de Santos, SA, Madrid, 1991. pp. 59-87.|
|6.||BUTTLE, FRANCIS. Customer Attachment: a Conceptual Model of Customer-Organization Linkage. Supply Chain Practice. (Bedford): 1-27, 1998.|
|7.||CARLZON, JAN. The moment of the truth. Ed. Díaz de Santos, Madrid, 1991.|
|8.||CHASE, RICHARD B. Address and administration of production and operations. — Mexico: Irwin, 1995.|
|9.||DORLOFF, FRANK-DIETER and PAUL ROTH. Service und Material managment. Ed. Gabler, Wiesbaden, 1985.|
|10.||FONTES LIMA, ORLANDO Jr. “A logistics as a competitive vantage of companies”. Paper presented at the V Congress of the National Association for Research and Teaching in Transportation (ANPET), Belo Horizonte, 1991.|
|11.||GALVÃO NOVAES, ANTONIO. "Level of logistics service: the client's point of view". Paper presented at the 17st International Seminar on Logistics. São Paulo. SP. August 18-1994, XNUMX.|
|12.||Efficient of capacities in logistics systems. José A. Acevedo Suárez… / et al./.– Havana: ISPJAE, 2002.|
|13.||GÓMEZ ACOSTA, MARTHA I. AND JOSÉ A. ACEVEDO SUÁREZ. Supply logistics. Collection Logistics Corporation John F. Kennedy, Ed. Litográfica Pabón, Santafé de Bogotá, 2000.|
|14.||GONZÁLEZ GONZÁLEZ, ROBERTO. Challenges of the Cuban fuel system. Journal of Logistics Emphasis. (Mexico), (29): 30-35, November 2002|
|15.||KRIEGEL, ROBERT J. AND LOUIS PATLER. If it ain't broke, break it. Unconventional ideas for a changing business world. Ed. Norma, Colombia, 1994.|
|16.||KUMAR, Nirmalya. The Power of Trust in Manufacturer-Retailer Relationships. Harvard Business Review. (Boston): 96-106, November - December 1996.|
|17.||LACRAMPE, SERGE. La logistique commerciale. Informatique et force de vente. Paris: Editorial d`Organisation, 1989.|
|18.||RAMÍREZ PADILLA, DAVID NOEL and MARIO A. CABELLO GARZA. COMPETITIVE COMPANIES. A Change Strategy for Success, Ed. McGraw-Hill, Mexico, 1997|
|19.||RONALDO GRANEMANN, SERGIO. "Business logistics as a factor of competitiveness: phases and trends of its integration". Gestão e produção magazine, Brazil, 1996.|
|20.||SCHROEDER, ROGER G. Administrators of operations: decision-making based on operations. — Mexico: Editorial McGraw-Hill, 1992.|
|21.||SPRAGUE, RALPH H. Information Systems Management in Practice .— (USA): Prentice-Hall Publishing, 1993.|
|22.||WHITELEY, RICHARD. Client - company integration: the five best strategies to achieve success in business with clients. Mexico: Editorial Prentice-Hall, 1996.|