Do you know the classification of wines?
We have talked a lot about wines, pairings and techniques to serve them in this site. Today we wanted to go a little further and share with you the classification of these and, although we do not cover everything, some forms of food pairings that may be useful to you.
According to the color
According to the 1970 Wine Statute, wines are subdivided into: reds, rosés and whites.
Red wines are obtained from pressing black grapes that give white must, or red must. The red color is obtained from the pigments that are in the grape skins. The longer the must is in contact with the skin, the more intense will be the color of the wine and its concentration of tannins (substances found in the skins, seeds, etc.)
Rosé wines are obtained by pressing the same grapes as red, although in this case the contact time between must and skin is much shorter, so the color is less strong.
White wines are obtained by pressing white or black grapes.
In the case of black grapes, it is mandatory to prevent the must from taking color, so the must and the skins must be separated quickly before fermentation begins.
We mention aloque wines, although they are low-grade wines. quality obtained from the mixture of red and white wines, which are even prohibited in some regulations.
According to age
Naturally, the color testifies to the age of the wine as it changes with aging:
- In the white wines the youth of the wine is manifested by pale colorations, straw tones, lemon, greenish iridescence and whitish edges (colorless). The more mature ones have more golden, amber tones.
- In the red wines the mauve and purple coloration gives way to brownish notes - reddish, tile, while the edges go from reddish - whitish to amber and mahogany.
- International shipments may take up to Rosé wines they evolve in different shades of pink until a pink - orange to orange and from there, to a yellowish orange that will denote their aging.
Special wines are those that have particular compositions that are different from the rest. These differences may be based on: the grape itself, the techniques used to make it, or the application of specific practices or systems such as some fortified wines.
The field of specialty wines is very broad and includes the following types:
Generous wines: They come from select grapes and their alcohol content is between 14 and 23º. They are made following traditional techniques including the addition of natural sweet wines, musts or mistelas. Among them are the generous liqueur wines whose sugar content is greater than 100 grams per liter.
Noble wines: are those made with grapes declared preferred in the region and whose aging period is at least 2 years.
Sweet wines: Naturals are so called because of their richness in sugars (more than 250gr./l.), they do not ferment completely and they preserve some natural sugars of the grape. Its graduation reaches 18º, which can be achieved with the addition of wine alcohol exclusively.
Aged wines and chacolís: wines produced in the Cantabrian and Galician areas, in the northeast of the province of León and in the areas of the upper Penedés and Conca de Barberá. In these cases, a minimum graduation of 7º is authorized.
Amistelado wines, mistelas: they come from the mixture of grapes with wine alcohol and must have a minimum graduation of 13º. Its sugar content is higher than 100gr./l.
Flavored wines, wine appetizers and vermouths: They are obtained from a base wine to which innocuous or stimulating plant substances are added. Their graduation cannot be less than 14º.
Natural sparkling wines: they come from grapes of suitable varieties. They contain, as a consequence of their production, carbon dioxide produced by their fermentation, so that when the bottle is uncorked and the wine is served, a persistent foam is formed followed by a continuous release of bubbles. These wines are subdivided into:
Cavas: They are true champagnes, since they are made according to the champenois method. The difference is in the type of grapes, in the bubbles (smaller and finer in the case of champagne) and the lower acidity of champagne. The second fermentation is carried out in the bottle and in this the production and aging process is carried out, until the total elimination of the fermentation mothers (remains). Its graduation ranges between 10.8º and 12.8º and its pressure (due to CO2) is greater than 4 atmospheres.
According to their sugar content, they are classified as:
- Extra breed: without added sugar or up to 6 grams per liter.
- Brut (brut nature): 0 to 15 grams maximum per liter.
- Extra dry: from 12 to 20 grams maximum per liter.
- Dry: from 17 to 35 grams per liter.
- Semi-dry / semi-sweet: between 33 and 50 grams per liter.
- Dessert: more than 50 grams per liter.
- Of large containers: when the second fermentation takes place in large containers or containers, generally metal, hermetically sealed, from which it is transferred to bottles (after filtering) for marketing.
Sparkling or aerated wine: It is one to which all or part of the carbon dioxide has been artificially added.
To finish the point regarding sparkling wines, it should be noted that this type of wine (champagnes, cavas and the like) needs a thicker glass bottle than the usual one and the mushroom-shaped cork must be attached to the bottle with a letter or letter. muzzle.
The type of sparkling wine is recognized by looking inside the cap: if it has a drawing in the shape of a four-pointed star, we are dealing with a natural cava, (aging time nine months), if it is marked with a thick stripe we are dealing with one with two months aging, if it is a circle we have one of large containers and in the case of finding a triangle we are faced with a fizzy wine.
The following image shows the ideal pairing according to the type of food that you can suggest to your customers at the time of service.