The kitchen principle
For millions of years, all members of human groups have had to learn to cookThis activity was and is part of the culture of the peoples. No one doubts that the kitchen it is an art and no artistic manifestation is older than the art of preparing food to satisfy the vital needs of man.
When men meet in collective activity of any kind, one of the most important is the cook, since the kitchen it is one of the most remote and important tasks of humanity.
The basis of food in ancient times was composed of vegetables consumed in the natural state or cooked in the form of sweet or acidic soup or porridge. It was the Hebrews, on the occasion of their stay in Egypt, who introduced the kitchen the use of bronze or clay vessels, which they placed on the fire to make soups, season vegetables, obtain broths, juices, etc.
The Romans in the antiquity They did not know the art of good food, as they spent a lot of time fighting to ensure their independence, they fed on vegetables, fruits and cooked wheat in the form of porridge, with the expansion towards their new conquests, they knew some culinary preparations.
In this way the Greek chefs, who taught the delights of the feasts, arrived in Rome, brought the luxury to the table to an almost incredible point and began to trade with other countries all those merchandise and products unknown to them until then. such as graffiti, truffles, rabbits, pheasants, peacocks, spices and other varieties of fruit and fish, which in those days was a luxury food. These feasts became rarities since there were thousands of fish and birds that were served, such as a dish made up of the brain of five hundred ostriches, among others.
The Greeks at their famous Cup party ate roasted meats of sweet and sour sauces and fats made with grated zest of exciting substances to provoke thirst and drink copiously, a certain cook named Lamparia (4 centuries BC) invented black sauce prepared with hare's blood and spices. But it is in Mesopotamia where the first traces of culinary art are found in the bas-reliefs of the Nineveh (capital of Assyria in ancient Asia), on the banks of the Tigers, where the royal feasts are represented with the queen half lying down in front of the table loaded with plenty of food.
This is the case of Sadanápolo and Semíramis (king and queen of ancient Assyria), whose feasts are legendary for the huge roasted pieces they represented. The Greek historian Herodotus (484 –420 BC), recounted that people celebrated their birth day with abundant food, for which they roasted an ox, horse, donkey, or camel.
When the troops of Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia (336-323 BC), seized the palace of Darius I, King of the Persians (550-486 BC), 277 cooks, 29 stokers from kitchen, 17 pourers (wine servers) and 70 pastry chefs.
As for the culinary method of those first centuries, we can say that, despite the luxury, these were quite primitive, since only porridge, cookies and roasts were known. Only Greece begins to play an important role in culinary art from the XNUMXth century BC and the numerous treatises on kitchen that they were written at that time only some authors, titles and summaries of them are known.
Thus we have received the names of authors such as Timachido de Odas, Numecio de Heraclea, Matreo de Pitana Aristexono de Cirena and Archestrade de Siracusa, who was a contemporary Greek writer of Aristotle (famous Greek philosopher (384-322 ane, and authors of the GASTRONOMY.
The art of pastry
The art of pastry was highly perfected among the Greeks and from them preparations such as La Choirinial, a mixture of roasted wheat and honey are known. The Artelogano, prepared in wine, oil, fat and seasoned with pepper, the pasta cooked between two plates Enchartytes and Obilias, the Etrión, a kind of meatballs made from barley flour and prepared with honey, the Tryon, predecessor of plumpuding, left by Pollux , consisting of lard milk, thick semolina, eggs, cheese and brains, wrapped in fig leaves, cooked in bird or kid broth, separating the leaves and pouring in boiling honey.
The absence of butter explains the use of cheese in the patisserie and kitchen of this time. The cooks were free men who felt glorified to be able to count among their ancestors Cardumes, founder and king of Thebes in Boeotia (during the middle empire .22160 -1730), who taught for the first time the art of writing in Greece and was the cook of King Sidní (today Saida, ancient city of Phenicia).
In Rome, the unbridled luxury of the table was until the empire collapsed. The arrival and irruption of the northern towns changed and modified all the kitchen development achieved until then, most of the cooks were assassinated in the palace. Others fled and the kitchen only began to reappear again when the victors allied with the vanquished, this improvement took place in the XNUMXth century, since the barbarians pushed back the art of the table in many centuries and the kitchen turned off the civilization that He had so proud the Romans ... "When there was no longer literature, no high and quick intelligence, no inspiration or social ideas (as Caramé said).
With the kingdom of Charles the Great (one of the greatest figures of the Middle Ages 742 -814), King of the Franks and Emperor of the West, the golden-legged pheasant and the peacock with extended tail could be seen. The king delightedly ate grilled chicken with Garafolata sauce whose main ingredient in its preparation was cloves.
The Venetians began to import from the East spices such as the perfumed waters provided by the Arabs as was the example of fish boiled in rose waters. Condiments were widely used. Athenaeum (wise writer born in Egypt), author of THE Banquet of the Sophists, cites some seasonings used, cumin, coriander, cinnamon, garlic, chives, thyme, chayote, parsley, wild radish. Cyprus mustard, capers and many others. The Greeks also knew the "Garrón" of the Romans, obtained by fermentation of the intestines of fish and the "Armatión" that was made with the tuna guts.
An old parchment from the ancient church of Saint - Corneilles, relates the banquet with which Father Prior King of France Louis VII was gifted (around the 14th century), the menu consisted of 14 different soups, 14 roasts, 14 salads and XNUMX "lemons" sprinkled with fruits, nuts, hazelnuts, almonds, marzipan , drunk cakes of wine, honey and provided with spices. The food at that time was divided into various services and the delicacies were served in immense wooden tin trays, by this time the forks were unknown. During these feasts it was customary to give hors d'oeuvres.
In the sixteenth century, during the reign of Philip VI of Valois, the fashion was to serve many dishes accompanied by formidable sauces that were prepared with pepper, cloves, juniper, garlic, onion.
In those times, cooks and grills were part of the servants of the lords, the staff frequently distributed the service, in the following way, the cook only participated in the entrances, the roasts were executed by the grills, which for a long time were designated by the name of “Hateura” (employee of the palace in charge of the barbecue), a word of which today remains a mark in the French language with the designation of “Hatier“ (kitchen andiron with hooks on which the grills rest) , The "hateur" had under their orders, to stuff the meats, rotate the spits and sprinkle the roasts.
After the marriage of Catherine de 'Medici (daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, of Florence (1519-1589) with Henry II, of France, the kitchen as the other arts suffer Italian influence; The sixteenth century, which was of artists and letters It was also one of the grocers, thus it has Christopher Columbus and Vasco de Gama and Magellan, who were more attracted by the discovery of the routes of spices than encouraged by scientific curiosity.
It was during the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XV in the XNUMXth century that the name of the most famous cooks began to appear, together with that of their masters. Around the same time, the art of cooking flourished in the court of England and Queen Anne spoke with her cooks about some preparations, which is why many English recipes appear written in the manner of Queen Anne.
Beginning in 1740, with the reign of Louis XV, an order, cleanliness and elegance were established between meals and a banquet consisted of first service, second service and dessert.
In 1770 the so-called "Fondes" arose, due to the need of travelers and foreigners to eat and those individuals who did not have cooks in their homes to invite their friends, so a definition of inn was established at establishments where all individuals could eat at the time that a agreed price and the owner of this establishment was called Fondista.
It appears together with the date of the list of delicacies indicating their price so that it could be ordered by the consumer and the note indicating the number of delicacies ordered and their costs. These fondas spread throughout Europe. Among the most famous long distance runners in France we find Beauvillier, Meot, Robert, Rose. Being the most remembered Beauvillier, who established in 1782 an inn that for more than 15 years was the most famous runner in Paris. And published before his death, in 1820, two volumes entitled "The Cook Art".
At the beginning of the XNUMXth century, it is that we are witnessing a true development of the culinary technique, the principles of which codify Carame in several works including: El Parisian chef, appeared in 1928 and French Culinary Art in the nineteenth century., In this century appears the Gastronomic Almanac, written by Grimod and Brillat –Savarín meditate on his well-known philosophy of taste, which was published under the name of Restoration.
In 1882, it appears The Great Illustrated Dictionary from Joseph of the Faure kitchen. With the efforts of Motagné, Augusto Escofier and Piléas Gilbert and thanks to simplifications and improvements introduced by them, the foundation of contemporary French cuisine is created, the first in the world, simple in its means, refined in its results. French cuisine only has one competitor, Chinese cuisine, but the latter, more synthetic, requires a wise search and frequently complicated preparation. Gurnosky, Prince-elect of gourmets, he liked to refer to what an old Mandarin full of wisdom told him in Canton "France and China are the first two countries in the world, since they are the only ones that have invented a courtesy in the kitchen."
In Asia and Africa they were characterized in their kitchens for using rice, millet or roots rich in starch, and on the other hand highly seasoned sauces, melted and emulsified fats, foods of animal and vegetable origin.
For many years the culinary technique was oriented towards solutions purified. Making great progress conditioned by advances in science and technique. Billat- Savarín, I propose “Like all the sciences that deal with the composition of bodies that are appreciated by taste, it will follow chemistry the moment it has entered my underground laboratory to clarify our trainers, propose principles, create methods and clear causes that until then had remained hidden "
The new kitchen
The first half of the XNUMXth century, did not present substantial changes in the culinary elaboration of food, it is in the middle of this that new recipes begin to be elaborated together with the development and commercialization of food on a large scale, the competition forces a fight by quality mainly in Europe and North America, also establishing new structures in the kitchen brigades, in the production flows, new nomenclatures in the positions of the kitchen, grouping in each department of these the related culinary preparations.
At the end of the sixties, a movement for the renewal of Culinary Art began in France, sponsored by renowned chefs (Paúl Bocouse, the Troisgros brothers, Michael Guerard, Outhier, Vergé, etc.). That they put into practice the recommendations of figures such as Curnosky and Raymond Olive and it was considered that in the year 2000 they would eat pills, nothing further from the behavior of the culinary art that every day takes shape that captivates more addicts of good eating to those who are has called them "GOURMET ".
The main objective of the "New kitchen", was to create a different image according to current times, which could be summarized among its essential characteristics in:
- Use of fresh and seasonal products, through market knowledge.
- Simplicity in the dishes, without detriment to the culinary quality.
- Soft sauces and cooking points that allow better textures and natural food flavor.
- Use of the juices of food as opposed to large funds.
- Imagination for the preparation and presentation of the dishes with the principle of simplicity.
- Rescue of traditional recipes, taking it to modern styles.
- Strengthen regional or indigenous cuisines.
- Greater use of dietetics and nutrient balance in culinary preparations.
- Reduction of the quantities to serve.
- Unconventional tableware regarding the round shape, color, for plating food, looking for contrast of shapes and valuing the cuts, cooking applied to food.
- Improve more appropriate hygienic - sanitary conditions and a more functional relationship with the units to which it is connected that allows a faster and more comfortable flow in production - service.
- The rational study of its basic facilities, to achieve maximum performance at the lowest cost.
- Greater use of technical resources and human capital.
- Use the new techniques developed to achieve productivity rates that balance the investment-profit ratio
Scientific-technical development requires the use of elaboration methods with greater rigor in the application of hygiene, in the elaboration of food and in the conservation of these, as well as applying cooking methods that guarantee a better use of the nutrients they contain. food for the achievement of quality and profitability of production.
The famous cook Paul Bocouse and others took on the task of revolutionizing and giving an approach to the completion of the dishes and organized a trip to Japan to see and study said cuisine and from it they extrapolated trends in the assembly of the dishes such as:
- The element of volume and height.
- Point of attraction.
- The contrast of colors.
- The feeling of abundance on the plate with few portions.
- Sauce scented with aromatic herbs.
- Different textures on the same plate, (soft and crispy).
- Use of candied vegetables from tomatoes, ginger etc.
- The mixture of salty and sweet.
- Mixes of sauces from different origins such as seafood with red meat, poultry etc.
- In the assembly of flavors in a plate there should be no more than three.
- Respect the natural flavor of those foods that, due to their nature, cost, such as seafood, have their intrinsic value.
Today the trend is to eat less, but there are more food sections, surprising the customer with Creativity. Take into account three very important elements: sight, smell and taste. French considered the cradle of Gastronomy, that the client himself from the wine list makes up the culinary menu involving a complete preparation of the mise en place and a high professionalism of the culinary staff. The carved products in the living room tend to disappear since the service tends to make it easier.