Obviously, a large part of the strategies of marketing that a company implements are aimed at competitors. In these cases, the first thing is to identify who they are the real competitors of the company. Otherwise, measures could be being taken taking into consideration other market participants that in reality will never affect the success of the organization's own market; which implies that they would be lost resources, invested uselessly. On the other hand, if the concept of “competitors” is extended too much, it can end up in an unmanageable situation: they turn out to be so many that it is impossible to follow them up.
In all markets there are different levels of competitionHence, four categories of it have been identified. It is convenient, therefore, first of all, to classify the possible known “competitors” into one of the following categories (we have used the examples proposed by Munuera and Rodríguez, which analyze the different levels of competitors with respect to Pepsi-Cola Light):
As you can see, the identification of competitors it necessarily implies defining in which segments of the same markets they act or participate, since they usually make collateral or contiguous competition with each other, but they are not direct competitors. Thus, for example, a luxury cosmetic (Lancôme style) does not compete with a cosmetic
popular, from a local brand, although they satisfy the same primary need; this so because the categories of Prices that are created in the markets (premium, high, medium, low) convert products that theoretically would be direct competitors into collateral or contiguous competitors.
Once the competitors that have significant influence in the market or interest segment of the , it is necessary to collect as much information as possible about these; namely, in a list that is not intended to be exhaustive:
- Weak and strong points.
- Product portfolio.
- Production capacity.
- Market share.
- Growth rates.
- Future plans.
- Marketing strategies and activities.
- Brand image.
- Research development.
- And the like.