The most influential Management writer
Since the 40s, it is without a doubt Peter Ferdinand Drucker, the Austrian who, upon arrival in the United States, made the Administrators a true discipline. Although his work covers more than 30 books, an attempt is made to test his thinking through some of his works.
Previously, the location given to Drucker (jointly with Ernest Dale, Harold Koontz, Cyril O'Donnell, William Newman, George Terry, Ralph Davis, among others), by Idalberto Chiavenato in his book Teoría General de Administrators (1999), in the so-called Neoclassical Theory of Administrators, which is nothing but the update of the Classical Theory, an eclectic theory that takes advantage of the other theories for its application to the companies from today. Here is a synopsis of his works:
The works of Mr. Management
- The End of Economic Man (1939). This is Drucker's first long book. He sets out his reasons for the causes of fascism and analyzes the failures of established institutions. He adduces vigorous reasoning in favor of the need for a new social and economic order. “On reflection, the only thing I did well was to observe phenomena and ask myself what they meant. In 1933 I already knew how Hitler would end, and then I started my first book, 'The End of the Economic Man', which could not be published until 1939, because no publisher wanted to accept such horrible visions. It was perfectly clear to me that Hitler would end up killing the Jews and it was also clear that he would end up signing a treaty with Stalin ”.
- The Future of Industrial Man (1942). The author investigates the issue can individual freedom be preserved in an industrial society? The dominance of big business, the power of managers, automation, and the dangers of monopoly and totalitarianism are important topics discussed in this book. “In my second book, 'The Future of Industrial Man,' I came to the conclusion that the integrating principle of modern society had become large-scale organization. At that time, however, only the company organization existed. In this country, the commercial enterprise was the first modern institution to emerge. I decided that I needed to be on the inside, really study a great company from the inside; as a human, social, political organization - as an integrating mechanism ”.
- Concept of the Corporation (1946), the author discloses how, through decentralization, General Motors became one of the largest American corporations. Drucker said decentralization was good because he created small groups where people felt that their contribution was important. The <strong>success</strong> of this work showed that in those years there was an enormous interest in management. Alfred Sloan Jr., its president (1923-1956), would also tell about his experiences in the company he directed in his work "My years with General Motors" (1962).
- The New Society (1950). In this important book, Drucker brings together the themes of his first two books, The End of Economic Man and The Future of Industrial Man. He refines his impression of the new world order. It is extended in the concept of the great company, like the representative social institution. It presents an image of the way the world will function in the last decades of the XNUMXth century, an image that became a remarkable reality.
- Practice of Management (1954), he did it for the common people to learn to manage, something that at that time could only be done by an elite. Thereafter the Administrators became a true discipline and the book the first "bible" in management. On Insights from Administrators, is a valuable guide for business leaders who need to study their own performance, diagnose their own failures, and improve their own productivity, as well as that of their company. Illustrative examples are taken from companies such as Sears Roebuck & Co., General Motors, Ford, IBM, Chrysler, and American Telephone & Telegraph. This work also exposes about "Management by Objectives", considering Drucker as one of the main pioneers of the concept.
- Landmarks of Tomorrow (1959). In the first two chapters, Drucker describes New World standards, the fruit of recent years. The following is the evidence that we will have to overcome in education, government and political economy. The book ends with Drucker's remarks about the spiritual reality of human existence.
- Managing for Results (1964). It was the first book to explain business strategy. Drucker shows how existing businesses have to focus on opportunities rather than problems to be effective, so opportunities grow and develop. "'Management by Results' was the first book to discuss what is now called 'Business Strategy.' It is still the most widely used book on the subject. When I wrote it, more than twenty years ago, my original title was, in fact, 'Business Strategies', but 'strategy' in those days was not a term in common use. Indeed, when my editor and I decided to test the title with well-known executives, consultants, business professors, and booksellers, we were strongly encouraged to abandon that term. 'Strategy', they told us over and over again, belongs to the military or perhaps to political campaigns, but not to business ”.
- In The Effective Executive (1967), he talks about the executive's obligation to be efficient, but that effectiveness can be learned, considering that effectiveness is a set of habits, that is, a sum of repeated actions that end up internalizing the way of being of the executive. For Drucker there are 5 practices and habits that must be learned to become an effective executive: 1 ° every efficient executive controls his time, 2 ° every effective executive directs his efforts towards predetermined results, 3 ° the efficient executive builds on strength: the own and those of their superiors, colleagues and subordinates and those of the circumstances, 4 ° the effective executive focuses on a few major areas, therefore, establishes priorities and; 5th the efficient executive takes cash strategic, you know you have to apply a system for it.
- The Age of Discontinuity (1969). Four main areas of discontinuity are studied: a) the explosion of new technology, the fruit of which is new important industries, b) the change from the international economy to the world economy, c) a new social and political reality of pluralistic institutions and; d) the new universe of knowledge based on mass education. By clearly pointing out the changes we are experiencing, -such as the manager's role-, it is impressive how he analyzes economic, technological, political and cultural changes, it seems that the book had been written last year and no more than 4 years. He talks about privatization and the "knowledge worker" and its impact on the economy and society. To serve as a basis for action, Drucker asks: What must we do today to shape tomorrow?
- Technology, Management and Society (1970). It is a collection of essays covering the technological trends of the XNUMXth century, such as: long-term planning, reciprocal relationships between technology, science and culture; and those of the old and future administrator.
- Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (1974). The Administration is an organized body of knowledge. "This book," says Drucker, "tries to equip the manager with the understanding, thinking, knowledge and skills for the jobs of today and tomorrow." Drucker discusses the tools and techniques for a successful management practice; "Well, it should be repeated, the effective administration of our institutions is the only option against the tyranny of our pluralistic society of institutions and the goal, motive and purpose of this work are to prepare the effective action of current and future managers" . A true classic, essential reference work for the executive.
- Managing in Turbulent Times (1980). This important and timely book concerns the immediate future of business, society, and the economy. We are - Drucker says - entering a new economic era with new trends, new markets, new currencies, new principles, new technologies and new institutions. How will the administrators and the Administration deal with these new realities? The author explains that this work is concerned with action rather than with understanding, with decisions rather than with understanding, with decisions rather than with Insights. It deals with the necessary strategies to transform rapid changes into opportunities, to change the threat of change into productive and profitable action that contributes positively to our society, the economy and the individual.
- Innovation and Entrepreneurship (1985). The first book to present innovation and entrepreneurship as a determined and systematic discipline that explains and analyzes the challenges and opportunities of the new entrepreneurial economy in America. It is an excellent practical book that explains that established businesses, public service institutions and new risks have to know, learn and do to prepare and create the successful businesses of tomorrow. “I wrote that book because I felt that the time had come to get a little more serious about that subject than most works were and in part also because, abruptly, most of the things that are read and heard to me they give the impression, based on my 30 years of work and experience, of being misunderstood. The entrepreneur - the person with the entrepreneurial personality of George Gilder - exists, yes, there are such people, but they rarely succeed. On the other hand, individuals whom Gilder would never accept as entrepreneurs are often extremely successful. "
- Managing the Non-Profit Organization (1990). Talk about service and non-profit organizations, rapidly growing sectors of our society that create a greater need for experts to manage them effectively. Drucker gives examples and explanations about mission, leadership, resources, marketing, goals, person development, decision making, and much more.
- Post-Capitalist Society (1933). The post-capitalist society is a knowledge society. In a capitalist system, capital is the critical production resource and is totally separate and even in opposition to "labor." In this society where we are going very quickly, it is knowledge and not capital that is the key resource. It cannot be bought with money or created by investment capital. It fully explains the emerging economy, the knowledge economy, its protagonist (the knowledge worker), and the implications for organizations. An incisor Insights from the greatest world transformation taking place from the age of capitalism to the knowledge society. Examine radical influences on society, politics and business now and in the years to come.
- Management Challenges for the 21st. Century (1999), talks about self-management, that is, it asks a series of questions such as what are my strengths? How do I perform? Am I a reader or am I a listener? How do I learn? What are my Values? Where do I belong? How can I contribute? Giving us the answers in an otherwise simple and brilliant way. “This is not a book about predictions. It is not a book about the future. The challenges and issues discussed here already accompany us in all developed countries and in most emerging countries (for example, Korea and Turkey). They can now be identified, discussed, analyzed, and prescriptions can be formulated for them. Already some people, somewhere, are working on them ”.
- The Essential Drucker (2001). Peter Drucker is perhaps the best known author on Management and Economics. His first book was written in 1939 and since then he has published so many books that people wonder where can I start reading Drucker from? Which of his works are essential? The answer is The Essential Drucker, which contains 26 chapters taken from his various works published between 1954 and 1999, offering in Drucker's words "a coherent and reasonably comprehensive 'Introduction to Management' and gives an overview of my Management work." .
Apart from written works, one must also consider the opinions and concrete facts that a person does to understand his thoughts. Although modestly considered only a consultant, Drucker is more than that, because he practically invented modern Administration and is generally recognized to have played an important role in the formation of administrative thought.
He was the first to make it clear that "no business without a customer" (no business without a customer). And although it sounds controversial, we would dare to say that he does not identify with the system, because he does not regulate his life according to the patterns of gift money, he lives in the suburbs and dedicates a good part of his time and for free to organizations without for profit (in 1990, he helped found The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management).
People have always prevailed over capital and merchandise for him; workers should be treated as resources, not as costs. It has had the ability to anticipate changes and has had the ability to study and systematize them when they began to occur. His work covers all of Administration: industrial organization, leadership, business culture, motivation, strategy and many of his terms have entered everyday language: privatization, administration by objectives, decentralization, knowledge worker, “discontinuity”.
Also his work covers economy, politics, culture, society and philosophy. Those who haven't read Drucker's work yet - especially the executives - have a big gap to fill. He systematized a new reality: the company and gave dignity and consistency to a profession: manager.
To finish it would also be necessary to speak of his magisterial work. Peter F. Drucker is an example to follow, who writes, as a teacher of Administration, would only like to reach his age ... and continue teaching.