They are all the material means (fixed assets, supplies, tools, accessories and supplies) available in the preparation and processing areas to modify the physical and chemical properties of food, transforming it into culinary compositions suitable for human consumption.

They are located in the different areas, sections or specific zones that usually make up kitchens:
  • Benefit and preparation area for meats, vegetables and fruits; also known as legumier
  • Butcher-fishmonger or meat preparation area
  • Hot area
  • Cold area; also popularly called lunch o gardemanger
  • Chef's Office
  • Bakery - pastry (or sweet shop)
  • Sinks (for food service supplies and kitchen utensils kitchen)
  • Sinks for pots, kettles, pots, pans, frying pans and other containers used to subject food to fire; also known as cacerolier
  • Trash and rubbish area (for the latter it must be heated)

Equipment, utensils and accessories. Correct use, conservation and cleaning

For their description, they can be grouped as follows:
Refrigeration equipment
    • Cold room (freezing and maintenance): They can be built as part of civil works, although modernly panelized ones are often used.  
    • Refrigerator: Popularly it is also called frezzer. They are used to keep food at freezing or holding temperature.
    • Fridge: Depending on the size of the area (usually located in the cold area), domestic can be used. 
    • Ice Maker: Allow obtain ice, in different forms, within the same area where it will be used, through a water connection.
    • Water box: They are tanks of a square or rectangular shape where water is stored and kept cold through the cooling mechanisms they have inside. They are used to supply cold water to kitchens and living rooms.
Fire or cooking equipment
    • Kitchen: They can be two, four, six or more burners. They generally run on gas, although there are also electric ones.
    • Oven: According to the operational needs, they can be coupled to the kitchens, the same as the plates and grills. They run on gas or electricity and are mainly used in the hot area of ​​kitchens and in bakery-pastry shops. They have devices that allow the temperature to be regulated. Of the latter, expansion stoves or chambers, mixers or mixers, rounders and scraping machines are also their own. Due to their diversity of use and benefits for cooking food, they are highly topical convection ovens –which work by taking advantage of heat currents- for whose operation basically steam heated by electricity is used and which is circulates inside the oven using a fan; this air can be dry or humid. They stand out for their quality, durability and multipurpose those of the German brand Rational. 
    • Gas floor stove: They are popularly known as vulcan. They are low but with a large burner and high firepower. They are usually installed in the hot area and in the bakery-pastry shop.
    • Gratin oven or salamander: It is almost always installed fixed to the wall of the hot area. It is characterized by radiating heat only from the top, basically being used to finish and gratin the surface of certain preparations, which are covered with cheese or butter 
    • Fryer: They are generally electric or gas equipment, with tanks where fats are poured, are subjected to high temperatures and allow frying larger amounts of food, when placed in metal baskets and immersed in abundant fat. The heat is regulated by a thermostat, varying the temperature depending on the type of fat used as well as the quantity and type of food in question.
    • Cooking plate (fire): They consist of thick metal pieces that receive heat at the bottom and the food you want to cook with very little is placed on its surface  grease. There are smooth y ribbed o steakhouses, the latter being used to simulate the effects of cooking on grills. It is made up of a flat stainless steel surface and in most cases uses gas or electricity as an energy source. The heat source is direct on the plate and this in turn on the food for which fat or oil is applied, so as to smear lightly to avoid sticking the piece on the plate.
    • Electric iron or toaster: They are mainly used to toast breads or sandwiches. They are rather typical of light catering areas and lunch.
    • Grill (charcoal or gas with vulcanic stones): They are usually identified by their French and English name of grill. It is about cooking food, mostly pieces of meat, using charcoal or grilled. It is made up of a stainless steel or iron grid on which the food is placed. The spaces between the elements that make up the grill can vary, as well as the separation of the latter on the heat source, always considering the degree of cooking required and the dimensions of the product, among other factors. Modernly, the plates and grills are built with metal alloys, such as chrome.
    • Tacho or kettle: They are large containers with capacities ranging from 30 to 300 liters. They are used in kitchens with high volumes of exploitation, where larger quantities of food are produced. Its heat source is supplied by a boiler, in the form of water vapor with a certain pressure, that circulates through the double bottom that these equipment have. Its shapes can vary according to height, volume and uses. There are also kettles that use gas as their energy source, although much less efficient in terms of cooking quality compared to steam.
    • Flip skillet: They are rectangular-shaped tanks that are provided with fire at the bottom. As the name implies, it allows you to turn the food once it is cooked. Like pots or pans, they are mainly used in kitchens where large amounts of food are prepared and homogeneously.
    • Bain marie: They consist of metal frame furniture where water is deposited and is kept warm or boiling through electrical resistance inside. They are used to keep food warm, deposited in suitable containers made of stainless steel. It allows a softer cooking, unlike other equipment, which by prolonging the heat application time, overheats and dries out too much, which affects the organoleptic properties of the food, while preserving  of possible bacterial action. They also have a coupled metal shelf that has infrared lights installed between their cloths, which also allows maintaining the service temperatures required for food, once finished and portioned on plates. 
    • Microwave o microwave: It is a very widespread employment team today. Lets cook food from its interior to its external surface by means of the heat radiated by electrical operating equipment.   
The kitchens will be equipped with the equipment described above according to the characteristics of the installation and especially to the structure of the offers. For this, the particularities of the different Cooking methods. 
Means cooking the transformation process of a food through the application of heat, in order to improve its texture and appearance, make it more palatable, facilitate its digestion, counteract the effect of microorganisms harmful to health   
These methods are based on predetermined standards and are applied depending on the characteristics of the raw materials, the preparations to be made and the availability of the necessary utensils and equipment.
Cooking methods are grouped according to the following general classification:
    • Cooking in humid heat or at low temperature: Cooking temperatures are around 100 ° C  and as heat transmitting means, water vapor or a liquid medium such as water, milk, broths and sauces, except fats, is used. Within this classification are the following specific methods: boil, steamed, poach, stew y to stew.
    • Dry heat or high temperature cooking: Cooking temperatures exceed 100 ° C and hot air and fats are used as heat transfer media. They are subdivided into asar, to bake y fry.
There is another classification, of French origin, consisting of:
    • Concentration cooking: It consists of retaining the natural juices of the pieces; that is, substances that provide odor, flavor and nutrients, using for this the methods of asar, shout y fry.
    • Expansion firing: Nutritious and flavoring substances are extracted, as in the case of boil y poach.
    • Mixed cooking (or union of the previous two): It is a combination of expansion and concentration cooking, since they take place in two stages of the same process, as in braise and with the sauce cooking (stew, fricassee y to stew).
General characteristics of cooking methods
Roasting (baked): Subject a food to the action of dry heat produced by an oven or grill. This technique is particularly applied to large pieces of meat, poultry and fish.
It should be noted that it is hot air or convective heat that kitchen food, so that a superficial crust is formed and provides the carmelite-golden-pastel color, a fundamental quality parameter in these cookings. It should be foreseen that this necessary attribute does not become a defect, for which the indicated temperatures will be available in correspondence with the size and weight of the pieces, as well as causing a certain humidity in the cooking medium, either by injection or by placing a container with liquid inside the oven.
Also, the pieces must be rotated or rotated for even cooking, as well as extracting the resulting liquid (plate juice, roast juice or grand jus), in order to prevent food from leaking on its base, as well as systematically bathing the surface most directly exposed to heat to avoid frying on the base and bathing the heat exposure surface or covering it with bacon or aluminum foil, which protects from overcooking. It also has the advantage of shaping its accompanying sauces from the juices resulting from cooking, as well as that, once cooking is finished, they are strained, the superficial fat is removed, they are seasoned, wine is added Y  put on the fire until reduced.
Roasting in casserole: Subject the food to the action of the heat produced by an oven, by placing it in a hermetically closed deep container, on a bed of aromatic herbs. This technique avoids the risk of over-drying the product, as sometimes happens with traditional roasts.
Grilling (broiling or grilling): Submit a food to the direct action of radiant heat or contact heat (conduction). This fast cooking technique is mainly applied to small pieces, vegetables, organ meats, fish and tender meats. Most cooked products are lean, which explains the relationship of these products with respect to sauces derived from butters or flavored oils. With this method, the sauce is added to the  product at the time of mounting the plate.
Despite having common aspects the griddle and grill, both methods differ in terms of:
    • Aromas, standing out as most characteristic that of the grill
    • Flavor, because when cooked with aromatic woods, this provides more particular tastes.
    • The fire marks on the pieces, being a detail that is currently widely accepted, although various designs of plates allow this effect through their grooved surfaces, which is still an artifice as it is more difficult control the stability of the fire, in addition to generating dirt (soot, burned particles, dust).
Therefore, it should preferably be clarified in the menusy letters from Prices when it comes to one way or another of cooking, in avoidance of deceiving the clientele.
This method allows the surface proteins to coagulate quickly, caramelize the starch and preserve the juices found inside the piece.
Saute: Cook a food over high heat, generally uncovered, in small amounts of fat, quickly. It is applied to small pieces, vegetables,  fish and meat, always in small cuts.
 To bake: Put the food in the hot air of the oven. It is mainly applied to bakery and pastry productions. It allows the rapid formation of a crust obtained by the combination of physico-chemical reactions, by the superficial coagulation of proteins and by caramelising the starch.
Fry: Cook a food completely or finish cooking it by immersing it in fat at a high temperature, which varies according to the nature and thickness of the food, as well as the desired result. When applying this method, the temperature of the fat, the amount of product to add, the type of breading and the cooking time, among other details, must be carefully taken into account. Fried foods feature a distinctive flavor and crisp crust and juicy interior with attractive exterior coloration. When it comes to breading, light colored breadcrumbs should be used and the frying fat is clean.
Braise: It is slow cooking in covered containers, regularly in little liquid, on a bed of aromatic herbs, applied to large pieces, which are almost always cooked in containers called braceras, which have a hermetic seal that prevents the steam or heat generated from escaping inside. This method allows the pieces to be sealed and the products rich in aromatic and sapid substances, as well as healthy and with high nutritional value, to be subjected to prolonged cooking times.
Stew and / or stew: Both methods are slow cooking and regularly applied to food cut into cubes, pieces, slices and others. It is also appropriate for meats of a certain hardness (second and thirteen), rich in collagen (connective tissue), as is the case of the fricassee. First a concentration by sealing occurs and then an expansion with softening by the action of the cooking sauce.
Gratin: Submit the pieces to a high surface temperature, in order to finish cooking some dishes or products, during  relatively short exposure times. It has the peculiarity that the heat directly affects the upper part of the food.
Boil: Water or another liquid heated to a temperature close to the boiling point is used. It is generally applied in making broths and soups.
Poaching (or poaching): Depending on the product to be applied, this will be the type of poaching. There are notable differences when it comes to eggs than when it comes to meat or fish. The eggs are cooked at a temperature close to the boiling point, but without reaching it. For this, water combined with vinegar and spices is used. And when applied to fish and meat, concentrated and flavored broth is used, so that it lightly covers the product, covering with aluminum foil. Low-rim containers can be used, over low heat, or in the oven.
Steam cooking: Currently highly appreciated, since it does not cause appreciable losses in the nutritional composition of foods, it fully maintains its structure and produces a high digestibility in them, and it is not prone to undesirable cooking phenomena such as burns and dehydration.
Irradiation: For this method, the aforementioned microwave ovens or microwave. It is based on the principle of exposing food to electromagnetic waves with the particularity that its cooking is from the inside out, which implies greater care by the manipulator to achieve the desired effect. Many authors do not consider the use of radiation for cooking, but for the purpose of reheating products.
Vacuum cooking: Vacuuming is a natural preservation procedure for raw, semi-prepared or already cooked food, packed in an environment where there is no oxygen. A food packaged in a vacuum, inside a synthetic material bag, as a barrier against water vapor and gases, prevents oxygen from entering the outside or ambient air and  that the aerobic bacteria present in the food develop. In reality, these microorganisms are not completely annihilated, but their reproduction is prevented by the lack of oxygen, which constitutes their fundamental source of survival.
Other equipment used in kitchens, rather typical of the cold area, are:
    • Slicer or slicer: It is used to slice or slice uniform meats, sausages, cheeses, vegetables, fruits and other foods, using a rotating blade powered by an electric motor. It has its due protection accessories.
    • Cutter or vegetable: For purposes similar to slicers, it is used to make different types of cuts or to shred food, vegetables and fruits.
    • Blender or blender: They have a base on which is a motor and to which is attached a container or glass where the food to be mixed or liquefied is poured.
    • Fruit juicers
    • Electric or steam coffee machines
    • Metal container openers (manual or electric)
In meat preparation areas it is convenient against with a endless saw (to cut bones and ridges) and a meat mill (to obtain the desired thickness in the pieces of meat)
In cold areas are also the food processors (to cut and make doughs).
Bakeries and pastry shops generally have kneaders, rounders y stoves.   
In scrubbing areas, this operation is preferable with equipment. dishwasher o lava - crystals, which makes it possible to have hot water for injection, detergent and disinfectants, while speeding up work and guaranteeing better hygienic-sanitary conditions.
Among the furniture that is frequently arranged in kitchens, it is called neutral furniture (which must be made of stainless steel)  at Work tables, shelving y tuning machines; the latter, with similar use to the shelves but with their shelves made up of tubes or cylindrical pieces, basically intended to place the utensils of greater size and weight.
Among the most frequently used utensils in kitchen They stand out:
    • Knives of different types, sizes and use
    • Skimmers
    • Buckets
    • Carving or cutting boards
    • Casseroles
    • Pots
    • Pailas
    • Pans
    • Pans
    • Metal baskets (for frying and draining)
    • Weights, scales and roman
    • Guayos and mandolin
    • rollers
    • Passapure
    • Strainers and sieves
    • Molds
    • Pasta cutters
    • Metal containers
    • Sleeves and nozzles
    • Trays
    • Tatars
    • Mortars
    • Gloves and mittens
    • Sharpeners 
    • spatulas
    • Cloths
    • Brushes and brushes
    • Wick needles
In terms of hotels and restaurants, the set of utensils and tools used in kitchen also known by the name of household, term from French household.
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